AP World Test: Foundations (8000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.), Part II

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Which policy did both Roman and Han armies tend to implement upon taking control of a foreign land?

Relative autonomy for cooperative local elites

Before 600 C.E., nomadic peoples of the Eurasian landmass

Interacted intermittently with civilizations, often through trade

Why did the western portion of the Roman Empire suffer so much more in the breakdown of Roman imperial unity than the regions of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium)?

The Eastern Roman world had traditionally been more economically vibrant due to more active trade links with the East

Which of the following is the most accurate statement about ancient Roman trade routes?

Most trade routes were focused around the Mediterranean Sea

Which weakness of the Roman Empire contributed most directly to its collapse?

It was too vast to impose unity and order among all of the regions

After the fall of Rome, the astern half of the empire became renamed the

Byzantine Empire

Which of the following civilizations afforded the greatest degree of citizen input into government policy?

Roman

In Greek civilization, women

were considered inferior to men in both the private and public spheres

Christianity's rise is most accurately viewed as a modification of which of the following?

Judaism

Which of the following terms is NOT associated with classical Greek architecture?

ziggurat

Which neighbouring power posed the greatest military threat over the course of classical Greek civilization?

Persian

The geographic factors presented here led to the development of which highly complex and distinctive civilization by the year 600 C.E.?

- Fertile river valleys
- Isolating mountain ranges
- Dependable monsoon weather patterns

Indian

Which of the following best describes political patterns on the Indian subcontinent in the classical era 1000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.?

Decentralized rule by local princes punctuated by Maurya and Gupta periods of unification

Which was the most effective unifying force in early Indian culture?

Widely practiced and similar Hindu tradition, including the caste system

Which of the following is unique to the Hindu religion when compared to other major world religions?

I. Belief in some form of afterlife
II. Absence of a central founding figure
III. Distinct denominations

II only

Which major world religion lacks a central founding figure?

Hinduism

Which is NOT a significant continuity Buddhism carried over from its Hindu roots?

Endorsement of caste stratification

How did the Hindu doctrine of dharma impact Indian society?

It fostered the formation of rigid social and economic gorups

Which of the following ancient texts did not serve as a spiritual guide to salvation for those who lived by it?

Analects

Which important idea is credited to intellectuals of the Gupta Empire?

the concept of zero

Which beliefs do Hinduism and Buddhism have in common?

Reincarnation

Which lasting pattern in the history of the subcontinent can we trace to period of the rule of the Maurya and Gupta empires in India?

Difficulty in maintaining centralized imperial rule

Why did long-distance trade flourish in the classical world?

Stable imperial authority provided safe passage for merchants

Buddhism's rise is most accurately viewed as a modification of which of the following belief systems?

Hinduism

Which of the following regions does NOT belong in a list of lands to which Buddhism spread substantially in the centuries following the death of Siddhartha Gautama?

Mesopotamia

Which is the best estimate for the number of castes that have developed in India over the millennium?

thousands

Which of the following texts contain major religious documents that originated in India?

I. Vedas
II. Bhagavad Gita
III. Koran

I and II

Which statement comparing classical Chinese civilization with contemporary Western civilization is most accurate?

China set an enduring pattern of more sophisticated agricultural, metallurgical, and textile production techniques than Western civilization

Which of the following was NOT a tactic used by Shi Huangdi to unify China into one empire?

Employing legalism as a state policy

Which choice best captures the main difference between legalist and Confucian beliefs?

Legalism relied on harsh laws to maintain order while Confucianism depended on rituals, customs, and obligations rooted in family relations

Which of the following was NOT a lasting feature of Chinese civilization formed by the later Zhou era?

Confucian social prescriptions to guide family and state-subject relations

With which early Chinese emperors and dynasties do we most closely associate non-Confucian worldviews?

I. Wu Ti of the Han dynasty
II. Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty
III. Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty

II and III

Confucian thought falls most nearly into which of the following categories?

Conservative political philosophy aiming to preserve a hierarchical status quo

Which of the following was NOT an important basis for the higher socioecomic status of the Chinese gentry?

Commonplace advancement of women of the gentry class in the imperial bureaucracy

Which of the following best describes how Chinese imperial elites viewed their civilization in relation to the rest of the world?

China was a unique and superior civilization surrounded by barbarians of one sort or another

Which of the following qualifies as an example of Confucius's "Five Basic Relationships"?

ruler-subject, father-son, friend-friend, husband-wife

Which of the following characteristics best explains the durability of Confucian ideology in Chinese history?

I. Its ability to model large-scale relations between groups in the body politic on familial or personal relationships
II. Its ability to fulfill persistent desires of women for equality in gender relations
III. Its ability to unify a massive imperial bureaucracy around a common set of moral percepts over time
IV. A set of widely agreed-on and accepted essential texts, beginning with the Analects, which formed a common basis for study over time
V. Its exclusively Chinese origin, which meshed well with prevalent notions of the superiority of the "Middle Kingdom" over other civilizations

I, III, IV, and V

Which of the following choices contains belief systems that originated in China?

I. Confucianism
II. Legalism
III. Daoism
IV. Buddhism

I, II, and III

Confucianism differed from Hinduism in that

Confucianism emphasized earthly obligations without regard to concerns relating to afterlife and rebirth

Which is the closest similarity between the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty of ancient China?

Both achieved long periods of centralized government and expanding economies

Which of the following descriptions best summarize the kinds of individuals who have founded a Chinese dynasty?

I. Military genius of peasant origin
II. Regional feudal ruler who defeats rivals in battle
III. Nomadic chieftain
IV. Confucian scholar-gentry

I, II, and III

One major difference between the fall of Han China and that of the Roman Empire was

Dynastic China would return to equal and even greater prominence

In Chinese tradition, the Mandate of Heaven refers to

divine blessing of the rule of an emperor

In which of the following periods of Chinese history did Confucius live?

Late Zhou dynasty "Era of Warring States"

Which of the following is true for both the Qin and Han dynasty?

Imperial authority was strong in the opening years of each

Daoist thought tends to emphasize

harmony with nature

Which of the following was NOT a state concern in Han China?

Expanding educational opportunity for elite women

Daoist conceptions of nature emphasized

harmony and balance

Daoism was never a threat to dynastic rule because

Daoist detachment from human affairs blunted the possibility of political threat

The main pattern in Chinese art established by the close of the classical era was

high levels of craftsmanship and attention to detail work

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