first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Central Pacific Railroad
(USG), A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants
Union Pacific Railroad
(USG) , railroad that started in Omaha, Nebraska and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Chinese immigrants
Point in Utah where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed. The crews celebrated with placing real golden spikes into the last track laid.
Refers to the overland transport of cattle by the cowboy over the three month period. Cattle were sold to settlers and Native Americans.
Invented barbed wire. This allowed a farmer to protect his land and his crops so that wild herds would not trample the property. They can fence in the property more cheaply, and the production of barbed wire went up dramatically in 1874.
Great American Desert
The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.
Sand Creek Massacre
In Colorado territory in 1864, U.S army colonel John M. Chivington led a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne settlement along Sand Creek River. The Cheyenne under Chief Black kettle tried to surrender. First he waved the America Flag and the White flag of surrender. Chivington ignored the gestures. The U.S army killed about 200 Cheyenne during the conflict
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
Native American Tribe that will flee capture from U.S. Troops, who almost make it to Canada.
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
1883 Civil Rights Cases
ruled that Congress lacked the authority under Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
John D. Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870, it operated as a major company trust and was one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations until it was dissolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1911; John D. Rockefeller
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thompson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric.
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work
Horizontal & Vertical Combinations
the term horizontal integration describes a type of ownership and control. It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets. the term vertical integration describes a style of management control. Vertically integrated companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
National Labor Union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
a town or city in which most or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
Long vs. Short Haul
The railroad practice to charge higher rates on lines where there was no competition than on routes where several lines were operating. This often meant that the cost of shipping goods a short distance was greater than over a long distance.
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Interstate Commerce Commission
created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland;regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers.
devised by alliance leader Charles Macune by which farmers could store their nonperishable commodities in government warehouses, receive low interest loans using the crops as collateral
William Jennings Bryan
This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.
Spoils System/Merit System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power || the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Grand Army of the Republic
organization composed of Union Army vets, one of the first organized interest groups in American Politics and was the political arm of the Republican party during reconstruction period, their power grew towards end of 19th century as they helped elect USG and W McKinley, for a period of time it was impossible to be on the Rep ticket without GAR endorsement, helped push Johnson out of office
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
(BH) 1890 , In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878.
(BH) , 1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history, first time farmer products on productive list
William Marcy Tweed
N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
This welfare organization came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.
Young Men's Christian Association, Spiritual organization meant to provide healthy activities for young workers in the cities.
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor
In his 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, he explained his ideas for increasing efficiency by standardizing job routines and rewarding factory workers.
Novelist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, these works underminded the reputation of the industrial elite and stimulated pressures for tougher regulation of business.
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
Discontent among farmers, resulting from changes in their economic position after the
Civil War. They sought help from states and the federal government, thus abandoning the
doctrine of laissez-faire.
Labor organizations whose members were skilled workers in a particular craft--for
example, carpenters, masons, or cigar makers. The American Federation of Labor was
composed of individual craft unions.
Dawes Act (1887)
Changed the reservation system by granting 160 acres and U. S. Citizenship to native
American heads of families who agreed to give up their tribal allegiance.
The name applied to the 1870s and 1880s during which national politics was characterized
by party rivalries, the spoils system, and unregulated business competition. The term
comes from the title of a novel written by mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner.
Reform Republicans who refused to support James Blaine, the party's candidate in the
election of 1884.
A vote-gathering organization of politicians who loyally support a party boss and get the
votes in their neighborhoods to support their party's candidates by fulfilling needs and
providing services to constituents.
Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
Factions in the Republican party that emerged by 1880; the Stalwarts, led by Senator
Roscoe Conkling, supported the spoils system, while the Half-Breeds claimed to represent
the idea of civil service reform.
A form of business organization in which a group of corporations in the same industry
gave their stock int he individual companies to a board of trustees in return for stock
certificates that earned dividends. The trust effectively eliminated competition by giving
control to the board. The earliest example is the Standard Oil trust that controlled ninety
percent of the oil refineries and pipelines.
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the
development of American democracy and institutions; he maintained that the frontier
served as a "safety valve" during periods of economic crisis.
"Crime of '73"
Through the Coinage Act of 1873, the United States ended the minting of silver dollars
and placed the country on the gold standard. This was attacked by those who supported
an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers, and believed in the unlimited coinage
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
An insult made against New York Irish-Americans by a Republican clergyman in the
1884 election; Republican candidate James Blaine's failure to repudiate this statement lost
him New York and contributed to his defeat by Grover Cleveland.
Robert M. La Follette
progressive who reformed the system so that the people themselves could vote on candidates would be. Made sure people were given jobs based on merit system
muckraker who targeted the unfair practices of big business. Her articles about the standard oil company led to demands for tighter controls on trust.
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
a muckracker who wrote a book called the octopus which said that railroads strangled farmers because it was too expensive
Progressive Constitutional Amendments
Sixteenth (Income Tax), Seventeenth (Senators), and Nineteenth (Female Vote) Amendments. Social, political and economic reform that came as an American response to problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
head of the u.s. forest service under roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
Northern Securities Case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
Prohibited free passes. Gave ICC enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed it to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
1914, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
An attempt to improve the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, this law outlawed interlocking directorates (companies in which the same people served as directors), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate officers responsible for antitrust violations. Benefitting labor, it declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property.
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
expansionist who blended racist and religious reasons to justify American expansion in the 1880s and 1890s; he saw the Anglo-Saxon race as trained by God to expand throughout the world and spread Christianity along the way.
Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
Congress granted the president the power to liberate Cuba, stating that the United States intended only to free Cuba from tyranny
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
prevented newly independent Cuba from making treaties with other nations and gave the US control over Guantanamo Bay
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
General John J. Pershing
led the American Expeditionary Force; urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command; was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the Bristish passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Bryan instructed to send memo to Germany, hesitant, but did. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Bryan refused to write 2nd note and resigned as Sec of State. Replaced by Robert Lansing who DID write 2nd note, and Germans pledged not to use USWarfare, civilians would be allowed to evacuate
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
War Industries Board
This government agency oversaw the production of all American factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
Was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917 to August 21, 1919, it used every media available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Big Bill Haywood
A prominent figure in the American labor movement. Haywood was a leader of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM), a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America.
The Industrial Workers of the World. International Union headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 10,000 members. The IWW contends that all workers should be united within a single union as a class and that the wage system should be abolished.
progressive lawyer nominated to Supreme Court by Wilson, known for his brilliance and for fighting many public causes, his work earned him the name "the people's lawyer", first Jewish Supreme Court nominee
Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.
head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published "Women and Economics" which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.
One who believes in a government without law or order, or in a government that lacks a
President Taft's policy of promoting U. S. Interests overseas by encouraging American
business to invest in foreign countries, particularly in the Caribbean and Central America.
A movement or doctrine that advocates or demands for women the same rights granted
men, such as equal economic or political status.
A section of a city occupied by members of a minority group who live there because of
economic or social pressure.
The Supreme Court cases (1901-1903) that dealt with the constitutional rights in the newly
acquired overseas territories. The Court ruled that the Constitution did not necessarily
follow the flag, and therefore Congress was to determine how to administer the territories.
Senators opposed to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on any grounds; lead by
isolationists William Borah, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette.
A foreign policy that abstains from political or economic alliances or compacts with other
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the
corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus), Ida Tarbell (A History
of the Standard Oil Company), Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities), and Upton
Sinclair (The Jungle).
Program that Theodore Roosevelt ran on in the election of 1912; large corporations had to
be controlled and regulated by a strong President and the federal government that would protect the rights of women, labor, and children.
Woodrow Wilson's program put forward during the election of 1912; business competition
could be restored by breaking up the trusts, but Wilson did not believe in having the federal
government control the economy.
A payment required for voting in some states, used as a tactic to keep blacks and poor
whites from exercising their right to vote.
Heightened concern, after World War 1, in the United States about communism and fear
that it would spread. Especially after the passage of the Espionage Act of 1917, the
Sabotage Act of 1918, and the Sedition Act of 1918.
Referendum, Recall, Direct Primary
Ways in which the Progressives hoped to bring about direct democracy; referendum
gives the voters the right to accept or reject a piece of legislation; recall is a mechanism
for removing an officeholder before the end of his or her term; direct primary allows the
voters rather than the political bosses to nominate a party's candidate for office.
Members of the Senate who were ready to ratify the Treaty of Versailles with modifications; the group is often divided into the "mild" Reservationists, who wanted only minor changes, and the "strong" Reservationists, who favored the significant changes advocated by Henry Cabot Lodge.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Refers to the trial of two Italian immigrants--Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, both
confessed anarchists, for murder in 1920. Both men were found guilty and died in the electric chair in 1923, though their trial was a showcase for American bigotry and the evidence was scarce and improperly used.
The New Manifest Destiny
The late-nineteenth-century believed that it was the destiny of the United States to expand
beyond its continental borders.
The Big Four
Refers to the allied leaders at the Paris Peace Conference: Wilson (United States),
Georges Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), Vittorio Orlando
Refers to the treatment of the Cuban Revolution that exaggerated the Spanish atrocities;
the sensational stories in William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph
Pulitzer's New York World were a factor in the U. S. Declaration of war again Spain in