Chapter 28: The Cold War

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Potsdam Conference

In 1945, a meeting between Truman, Stalin, and Churchill in Potsdam, a Berlin suburb, was met with arguments. Stalin wanted war spoils while Truman wanted to save starving people. Chuchill's replacement, Clement Attlee was also there.Truman and Stalin clashed on reparations, the Polish border, and the fate of eastern Europe. The compromise was that each side would take reparations from their own occupation zones. (SU wanted G money for their damaged economy.)

What area did the Red Army have control over?

Poland, Balkans, Eastern Europe.

What area did US and GB have?

Western Europe from Scandinavia to Italy.

Which country favored self-determination?

The US.

Iron Curtain

Series of Soviet Satellite governments from the Baltic to Adriatic. SU claimed they needed a buffer for security but Churchill suspected Communism. It split Europe along a west-east line.

What did US and GB enact on their western half of Europe?

No harsh reparation and occupation policy, humane treatment, economic recovery, merged zones to unify Germany.

What did the SU with their zone?

Restricted German military and increased the communization. Coalition gov. of Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria were replaced with communist regimes.

What city was jointly occupied?

Berlin.

How did the Soviets gain a foothold in Central Europe?

Coup overthrows democratic government in Czechoslavakia.

Who did Western nations equate Stalin to instead of a cautious leader protecting Russian economy?

Hitler.

What was America's advantage over other countries after the WWII?

Economic Aid.

What were the 2 forms of economic aid?

1. loans
2. Lend-Lease

What economic situation made the SU angry at the US?

SU aked for $6 billion loan to rebuild itself but Roosevelt declined since their relationship was cooling down. Truman wanted to stop Lend-Lease but SU protested but then it ended after the war was over, which led to hostility. Russia rebuilt economy through reparations taken from their zones in Germany, Eastern Europe, and Manchuria.

When did the Soviets start making an atomic bomb?

1943, around the time of Potsdam.

Baruch Plan

In 1946, Bernard Baruch presented an American plan to control and eventually outlaw nuclear weapons. The plan called for United Nations control of nuclear weapons in three stages before the United States gave up its stockpile. It preserved the US monopoly on nuclear arms. Soviet insistence on immediate nuclear disarmament without inspection doomed the Baruch Plan and led to a nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

What advantage did the Soviets have?

European territory.

General George C. Marshall

Wartime army chief who became secretary of state. He was a good strategist that got helped from 2 good subordinates: Dean Acheson and George Kennan.

George Kennan

Wanted America to take over Britain on leading world affairs. He disliked appeasement. He was the head of the Policy Planning Staff and a master of the Soviet langauge and history, but distrusted the Soviets. He favored containment and he DON'T MESS.

Containment

Coined from Kennan's article on foreign affairs. It advocated long-term containment of Russian communism and agression to make SU make more reasonable policies and be at peace witht he West.

Truman Doctrine

It promoted the idea that the US should protect free people from armed minorities or foreigners; it was informal declaration of the Cold War against the Soviets. In 1947, it let Truman and Acheson get money to support Greece and Turkey fight off Commie guerillas because the British no longer could fund it. The argument that convinced the Republican Congress was that losing Greece could lead to losing 3 more continents.

Marshall Plan

European Recovery Program; it led the US give economic aid to Europe if they were not communists. It stimulated trade and contained Soviet expansion ($=> no unrest=> no commie strength) and Europe became more prosperous. The Soviets declined an offer thinking the US was trying to weaken them.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Since Urope feared Soviet aggression, western Europe asked the US to protect them. England, France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg all joined in 1948 when they signed the Brussels Treaty, agreeing to self-defense. It was the end of isolation for the US and was highly debated. It was a coalition of the US, Canada, and 10 European nations. US had to extend its atomic shield to Europe. It increased Soviet tension.

Berlin Blockade

In 1948, Stalin cut off traffic to his side of Berlin.

Berlin airlift

Instead of invading Berlin or withdrawing/ losing their side of the city, Truman used an airlift to send food, fuel, and supplies to troops and Berlin citizens. This helped Truman get reelected 1948. Truman also bluffed sending B-29s to Britain. Stalin rejected American diplomats but let America get away with the airlift.

National Security Act

After WWII, the US wanted to reform the military. In 1947, they made the Department of Defense that headed the army, navy, and air force. It also created the CIA and National Security Council to advise the president on security.

When did Truman start building the hydrogen bomb?

After Soviets exploded their first atomic bomb in 1949.

NSC-68

Defense policy by the Policy Planning Staff headed by Nitze that said the SU was trying to take over the world and the US was challenged. It proposed increased defense spending to not appease but challenge the SU with military force. It showed that Truman was willing to spend the big bucks to win the Cold war.

Yalta Conference

The US and SU established the balance of power in Asia. Russia would get the Northeast and Americans would get the Pacific (w/ Japan and islands). Douglas forced constitutional democracy upon the Japanese, banned commies from the government, and made them renounce war to rely on US troops. (US also had Marshall Mariana and Caroline Islands).

Chiang Kai-shek

He led the Nationalists in China. He was supported by Americans politically and economically but were corrupt and caused inflation.

Mao Tse-tung

Led the Communists in China. He was disciplined and his patriotism appealed to peasants.

Did Mao or Chiang seize Manchuria?

Mao.

Why did Marshall's effort to form a coalition between Chiang and Mao in order to prevent civil war fail?

Chiang had tried to take Manchuria after Mao, (They were counterattacked as well) which the US told them not to do.

After Mao takes Manchuria and Peking, Chiang flees to Formosa, and a Sino-Soviet pact is signed, who does the US ally with?

Japan in a Japanese-American Security Pact that ended US occupation of Japan in 1952. The US also refused to recognize Peking since it was too Russian and only recognized the Nationalists in Taiwan.

Where was Korea divided at 1945 and 1953?

38th parallel

North Korea

Industrial portion controlled by the Soviets under Kim Il-Sung.

South Korea

Agrarian portion under the conservative nationalist, Syngman Rhee. They were US-sponsored.

How did North Korea overthrow the Yalta settlement?

They crossed the 38th with approval from Stalin. Russia supported Korea military much more than the US because they did not want Korea to unify the way the UN did. Then Stalin ditched North Korea and told them to ask Mao for help. Truman thought this was Soviet aggression and listened to Acheson and got the UN to condemn North korea and asked for collective security action.

Pusan

Where MacArthur made a brilliant amphibious assault in Indochina and stopped North korean drive to the peninsula.

What was Truman's initial goal in Korea?

Unifying Korea by force, but later he gives up and settles on the 38th parallel.

Why did China attack Korea?

The UN forces moved toward Yalu (China) when driving the North koreans north.

Korean War led to the massive use of what of the US?

NSC-68 and arms.

What caused the coal miners and railroad strikes after WWII?

Americans had immense desire to buy consumer goods so companies rushed to produces appliances and cars. After wartime controls stopped, the prices inflated so labor demanded higher pay, leading to the labor unrest of 1946.

Why was Truman called the no. 1 strikebreaker by labor?

He asked Congress to draft railroad strikers into the army.

Employment Act 1946

Under Truman, the Council of Economic Advisers was created to help the government and made the government responsible for the economy.

Taft-Hartley Act

In 1947, this balanced with the Wagner Act by outlawing certain union activities such as closed shop. The president could also make an 8-day cooling period to delay dangerous strikes. Truman called it the "slave-labor" bill.

Which party had the majority in 1948 and who won the election?

Republicans, ironically, Truman the Democrat won again.

Dixiecrats

Southern States' rights party. Southern Democrats split off to protest pregress civil rights policies of Democrats and nominated Strom Thurmond.

Which party did former vicey Henry Wallace run under?

Progressive.

Who was the Republican nominee in 1948?

Thomas Dewey, who had a boring campaign because he thought he was going to win hands down. In contrast, Truman and Democrats pointed out their role in surving the Great Depression and Truman made a lively campaign.

How did Truman win?

He gathered the Roosevelt Coalition of blacks, farmers, laborers, and ethnics. He also challenged the Soviets with the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan and favored containment.

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

Reported communist spies in Agriculture and Treasury Departments in the 1930s.

Second Red Scare

Caused feared Communism thereatening peoples' liberties and commie espionage.

Loyalty Review Board

Removed people for "resonable doubt" of loyalty. Alger Hiss, 100s of people, and 11 Justice Department officials were found guilty. Later the Supreme Court said it was constitutional. Even the loss of China led to people accusing travelers in the State Department for it.

Klaus Fuchs

1950, this Brit gives away secrets he knew when he worked on the Manhattan Project. It fell into the hands of Soviets.

Rosenburgs

Electrocuted in 1953 because they were suspected of giving atomic secrets and being communists. Their deaths showed the intolerance of the US and was a case of controversey.

McCarthyism

Stridency and sensationalism of belief of there being communists in the State Department.

Joseph McCarthy

Senator who used outdated reportsand jelous federal workers' testimonies to be a huge douchebag. He was pesky toward Acheson and Marshall and even other Republicans. He caused loyalty oaths for teachers, a ban on leftist books, blacklisting of entertainers, less freedom of expression and ideas, and made many people lose jobs.

Scandals

Were associated with Truman's administration.

What was Eisenhower's platform in 1952?

K1C2/ Korea, Communism, and Corruption. Ike wanted to end the war. Was a Republican

Who was Ike's vicey?

Nixon

Who was Ike's Democratic opponent?

Adlai Stevenson.

What happened to defense under Eisenhower?

It decreased.

massive retaliation

In 1954, Dulles (Sec of State) announced his plan of Truman's deterrence with nuclear weapons on commies that threatened US interest rather than going into wars like Korea.

Dien Bien Phu

This area of Vietminh fell in N. Indochina after Commie guerillas took it down. The French has asked for US assistance to fight Commie Ho Cho MInh but in 1954, Eisenhower didn't want intervention since he didn't want to lose American lives or promote colonialism. In the end, Ho got North Vietnminh while the French got the South. The US eventually took over the french role in the South and helped Siagon be under the rule of Ngo Dinh Diem.

To show that the Soviets didn't really care about China, Ike and Dulles were firm on China. Name 2 examples.

1. Eisenhower defended Formosa against Chinese shelling.
2. Treaty to defend Formosa.

Suez Canal

An Egyptian crisis where Gamal Nasser took the Suez Canal in 1956. Western countries had oil interests in the Persian Gulf. US replaced England and France as the main Western influence in the Mid East while Russia backed Egypt and Syria. This enlarged the Cold War.

Why did the US invade Lebanon?

To help Christian president Chamoun fight rebellious Muslim groups in a civil war to protect the pro-Western government of Iraq. Americans used their 6th fleet in Beirut and Chamoun stayed in power. Now small nations could lean on the US.

Name 2 activities of the CIA...

1. overthrew gov. in Iran and put shah on control=> US got oil but hated by Iranians
2. 1954, overthrew leftist regime in Guatamala to stop a SU footholf in the West but Latin Americans were unhappy

Fidel Castro

Got power in Cuba 1959 and drove Cuba into the SU orbit, which led to more covert action.

Name the goods and bads of Eisenhower...

GOOD- Suez Crisis, ended Korean War, peace in Indochina and Formosa
BAD- CIA in Iran and Guatamala

Geneva Conference

Eisenhower proposed to Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev in 1955 to have "open skies"/ mutual air surveillance in order to limit nuclear arms. SU feared espionage and refused.

Sputnik

Soviets launched the 1st satellite to orbit the earth, which heightened the Cold War and made the US fear intercontinental ballistic missiles/ ICBMs. US began to increase their creation as well.

What did Ike warn against in his farewell?

Massive military spending, but then again, he didn't end the Cold War.

military industrial complex

US realized containment

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