The nasopharynx is lined with a ciliated mucosal membrane with a highly vascular blood supply. One function of the membrane is to:
The slit-shaped space between the true vocal cords forms the
After entering a room of chemical fog, a 20-year-old male cannot stop sneezing. Which of the following structures is primarily responsible for his sneezing?
Irritant receptors in the nostrils
All of the following may be found in the walls of the respiratory bronchi except:
A newborn is in respiratory distress and requires ventilation. Tests reveal that he does not produce surfactant due to the absence of _____.
type II alveolar cells
The movement of blood into and out of the capillary beds of the lungs to the body organs and tissues is called:
Diffusion of respiratory gases takes place at the membrane between the:
type I alveolar cells and pulmonary capillaries
Students in a histology class are assigned to identify regions of the lung. The slide shows a basement membrane, capillary lumen, and macrophages. They are looking at the:
The primary function of the pulmonary system is best described as the:
exchange of gases between the environment and blood
A 42-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he suffered a severe head injury. He died shortly after the accident from loss of respiration. The area of the brain most likely involved is the:
The receptors that respond to increased pulmonary capillary pressure are called:
The _____ is the maximum amount of gas that can be displaced (expired) from the lung.
_____ are receptors in the lung that decrease ventilatory rate and volume when stimulated.
The lung receives parasympathetic innervation by the _____ nerve.
If an individual with respiratory difficulty was retaining too much carbon dioxide, which of the following receptors would be stimulated in an attempt to maintain a normal homeostatic state?
If an individual with respiratory difficulty were retaining too much carbon dioxide, which of the following compensatory responses would be initiated?
Increase in respiratory rate
During passive inspiration, muscular contraction of the diaphragm causes air to move into the lung. The mechanisms that drive air movement during passive inspiration are:
an increase in the size of the thorax and a decrease in intrapleural pressure
Surfactant facilitates alveolar distention and ventilation by:
decreasing surface tension in alveoli
Under most circumstances, increased work of breathing results in:
increased oxygen consumption.
Which of the following occurs when there is a balance between outward recoil of the chest wall and inward recoil of lungs at rest?
FRC is reached
At sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen is approximately:
Determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the lung given the following conditions:
Percentage of oxygen in air: 20
Barometric pressure: 700 mm Hg
131 mm Hg
At the base of the lungs:
arterial perfusion pressure exceeds alveolar gas pressure
Approximately 1000 ml (1 liter) of oxygen is transported to cells each minute. Most of the oxygen is transported:
bound to hemoglobin
If a patient's hemoglobin concentration (Hb) is 14 g/100 ml and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is 98%, what would be his arterial oxygen content? Remember that 1.34 ml O2 is the maximum amount of oxygen that can be transported per gram of hemoglobin. Hint: O2 content = (1.34 x Hb) SaO2.
18.76 ml O2 per 100 ml blood
Carbon dioxide is mainly transported in the blood:
in the form of bicarbonate
A consequence of alveolar hypoxia is:
pulmonary artery vasoconstriction
An 80-year-old male presents to his physician complaining of difficulty breathing. Pulmonary function tests reveal that he has increased residual volume. The most likely cause of this disorder is _____ in lung compliance.
A 10-year-old female develops pneumonia following a urinary tract infection. Physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions. She reports that breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air. This condition is referred to as:
A 20-year-old male presents to his physician complaining of difficulty breathing when lying down. This condition is referred to as:
A 50-year-old diabetic male did not take his medication and is now in metabolic acidosis. He is experiencing Kussmaul respirations that can be characterized by:
a slightly increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause
A 30-year-old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing. This condition is referred to as:
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea generally occurs with:
left ventricular failure
A 65-year-old female with emphysema presents to the ER for difficulty breathing. Physical exam reveals bluish skin and mucous membranes. This condition is referred to as:
A 28-year-old male complains to his physician that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions. This condition is referred to as:
Reduced oxygenation of arterial blood is called:
A group of mountain climbers experience confusion, tachycardia, edema, and decreased renal output after climbing Mount Rainier. This condition is caused by:
decreased inspired oxygen
A low ventilation-perfusion ratio results in:
The condition in which a series of alveoli in the left lower lobe receive adequate ventilation but do not have adequate perfusion is called:
alveolar dead space
A 30-year-old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustains trauma to the lungs and chest wall. He experiences respiratory failure. Which of the following lab values would be expected?
A 47-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary edema. Which of the following would be expected with this condition?
Pink, frothy sputum
A 65-year-old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. He now has aspiration of gastric contents. This condition could cause:
pneumonitis and pneumonia
A 26-year-old female recently underwent surgery and is now experiencing dyspnea, cough, fever, and leukocytosis. Tests reveal that she has a collapsed lung caused by removal of air from obstructed alveoli. This condition is called:
A 45-year-old male undergoes lung transplantation. He now suffers from airway occlusion secondary to fibrosis. The most likely diagnosis is:
A 50-year-old male presents with hypotension, hypoxemia, and tracheal deviation to the left. Tests reveal that the air pressure in the pleural cavity exceeds barometric pressure in the atmosphere. The most likely diagnosis is:
An 80-year-old female develops pneumonia in the hospital. She becomes cyanotic, tachycardic, and develops a fever and cough. Chest x-ray reveals pus in the pleural space. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 57-year-old male presents with cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and decreased lung volume. He is diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. His illness is probably caused by:
inhalation of silica, asbestos, mica
A 42-year-old female presents with dyspnea, rapid, shallow breathing, inspiratory crackles, decreased lung compliance and hypoxemia. Tests reveal a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Which of the following shows a correct cause and effect sequence in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?
Alveolocapillary membrane injury causing a massive inflammatory response
A 60-year-old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. She is most likely experiencing _____ pulmonary disease.
Asthma is thought to be caused by:
interactions between genetic and environmental factors
Asthma is classified by:
Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is related to:
exposure to an allergen causing mast cell degranulation
Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by:
mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema
A 10-year-old male is brought to the ER with prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia. The most likely diagnosis is:
A 22-year-old female presents with chronic bronchitis. Tests reveal closure of the airway during expiration. This condition is most likely caused by:
thick mucus from hypertrophied glands
A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months' duration. Which of the following is most likely to cause this condition?
A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months' duration. Which of the following is the most significant concern in this patient?
Recurrent pulmonary infections
A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. His airways are obstructed because of:
loss of elastic recoil
A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. Changes in his lungs are caused by:
Individuals with a recent diagnosis of emphysema most often present with:
A 60-year-old female with a 25-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. She has an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter because of:
Pneumonia is caused by:
viral or bacterial infections
Nosocomial pneumonia is generally acquired:
A 30-year-old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. The organism that caused this condition is a:
A 30-year-old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. He can transmit this disease through:
A 70-year-old female is in the hospital for pelvic fracture. She develops pulmonary thromboembolism. This condition is the result of occlusion of a portion of the pulmonary vascular bed by an embolus of:
Which of the following patients is at highest risk for developing a pulmonary embolus?
72-year-old male who is recovering from hip replacement surgery in the hospital
Which of the following shows a correct sequence of events in pulmonary embolism?
Hypoxemia inhibits the production of surfactant, causing alveolar collapse
An 80-year-old female is in the hospital for bone fracture. While there she develops a large, nonlethal pulmonary embolus. Which of the following is a direct result of the obstruction to blood flow?
A massive pulmonary embolism will most likely lead to:
shock and death
A 50-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. Which of the following symptoms most likely occurred before treatment?
Chest pain and shortness of breath
A 60-year-old male undergoes surgery for a bone fracture. Which of the following measures would be most effective for preventing pulmonary emboli in this patient?
Prevent deep vein thrombosis formation
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a rise in pulmonary artery pressure of _____ mm Hg above normal.
5 to 10
Secondary pulmonary hypertension is usually caused by:
chronic pulmonary disease
A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking was diagnosed with lung cancer. He was previously exposed to air pollution, asbestos, and radiation at his job. Which of the following most likely had the greatest impact on development of his cancer?
A 60-year-old male with a 40-year history of smoking presents with chest pain, cough, sputum production, and pneumonia. Tests reveal widespread metastatic cancer. Which of following is the most likely type of cancer?
Non-small cell carcinoma
A 1-year-old female is diagnosed with croup. The most likely cause of this disease is:
Respiratory distress and hypoxemia in laryngotracheobronchitis are caused by:
mucosal edema and laryngeal secretions
A 5-year-old male presents with high fever, inspiratory stridor, severe respiratory distress, drooling, and dysphagia. Which of the following is most important in diagnosing this disease?
Presence of fever
A 10-year-old male was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea. Which of the following treatments would most likely be tried first?
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. Which of the following is the most important predisposing factor for this condition?
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. He develops atelectasis because of:
lack of surfactant
Cardiovascular alterations seen in respiratory distress syndrome include:
opening of fetal shunt pathways
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. This condition appeared:
within minutes of birth
An infant was born 10 weeks premature and put on mechanical ventilation. Two months later he presents with hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Which of the following is most likely diagnosis?
Bronchiolitis mainly occurs in children under the age of:
A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea, cough, poor feeding, lethargy, and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Which of the following is most likely causing her condition?
Respiratory syncytial virus
An 11-year-old female presents with a low-grade fever and cough. She is diagnosed with atypical pneumonia. This condition is also known as:
A 2-week-old female presents with fever, cough, respiratory distress, and empyema. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A 9-year-old male contracted influenza. Which of the following complications is of greatest concern?
In asthma, _____ is (are) reduced.
expiratory flow rates
A 14-year-old male is experiencing an asthma exacerbation. Which of the following cells in the submucosa promote this inflammatory response?
A 13-year-old female is diagnosed with asthma. Which of the following should she recognize as part of an asthmatic attack?
Cystic fibrosis is an:
autosomal recessive disease
A 2-year-old female fell in a swimming pool and nearly drowned. She then developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Which of the following did she most likely experience?
A 1-year-old child with cystic fibrosis would demonstrate elevated levels of which of these compounds in both sweat and salivary gland secretions?
A 7-month-old male presents with failure to thrive and frequent, loose, and oily stools. Sweat testing reveals increased chloride. Which of the following would also accompany this disease?
A thick mucus
A 5-month-old female is found dead in her crib. The coroner ruled SIDS as cause of death. Which of the following risk factors is most likely associated?
Frequent respiratory infections
To prevent sudden infant death syndrome, parents should be instructed to:
always lay infants down on their backs to sleep