The time that elapses between the onset of the stimulus and the onset of involuntary response it elicits. Applies to reflexes, interception tasks, fast adjustments to voluntary movements and fixed action patterns
Discrete action or period of sustained activity (possibly repetitive) that is produced as a direct involuntary and relatively immediate response to the stimulation of a specific population of sensory receptors by a proximal stimulus
Produced by the activity of skeletal muscles
Rarely simple and rarely stereotyped
Produced by the activity of smooth muscles, glands, and regulatory systems. (exp. Heart rate, BP, temp, digestion, respiration, ect.)
A reflex in which the stimulus drives the response. Sensory neurons directly produces the neural activation of the muscle.
Simple neural circuit that produces rhythmic repetitive bursts of activity when excited by a constant (tonic) activating signal. Needs tonic activation to produce rhythmic output signals. Used in locomotion, breathing, scratching, etc.
Consists of excitation of angonist via one synapse while inhibition of antagonist via inhibitory neuron. Reciprocol Innervation.
Feedforward Inhibition (Reciprocal Inhibition)
Permits singleness of action - making sure that only one of two or more competing responses is expressed
Feedback Inhibition (Recurrent Inhibition)
Allows most active neurons to limit the activity of adjacent elements
Reflex arc contains more than one synapse
Flexor Reflex (Withdrawal Reflex)
Afferent neurons originate in nociceptors and secondary muscle spindle endings, they are bundled together in flexor reflex afferents
Response is confined to a single muscle. Most reflexes are elemental
Combination of elemental reflexes (involving several muscles) allows for this. (exp. withdrawal reflex)
Strong stimulus = more vigorous response, Longer duration = longer response, Stronger the eliciting stimulus = shorter latency.
One reflex triggers the next one. Exists in some behaviors (exp. touching a baby cheek, turns head, opens mouth, suck, etc.)