Describe the location of the kidneys relative to the vertebrae and relative to the abdominal cavity.
They lie against the dorsal body wall in a retroperitoneal position in the superior lumbar region.
Where is the renal hilum? What structures enter and leave the kidney at this location?
Renal Hilum - Medial indentation of the kidney.
Ureters, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and leave the renal hilum.
What is the general function of the perirenal fat capsule of a kidney?
Cushions and helps to hold the kidney in place.
What is ptosis and what kind of problem does it create for urine flow?
Ptosis - Where the bladder falls below the normal position.
This can cause the ureters to kink and let urine back up into the kidney tissue.
Name the 3 general regions of a kidney. Which region contains the pyramids and columns?
Outer renal cortex, renal medulla with pyramids and columns, and renal pelvis.
What is a glomerus? What does it contain?
Knot of capillaries of nephron where plasma is filtered and filtrate is formed.
Identify the 4 general sections of a nephron (i.e. renal tubule). (Hint: G, PCT, LoH, DCT)
Glomerulus; proximal convoluted tubule; loop of henle; distal convoluted tubule.
Where are the cortical nephrons located? In comparison where are the juxtamedullary nephrons located?
Cortical nephrons are located almost entirely within the cortex. Juxtamedullary nephrons are situated close to the cortex-medulla junction.
What is the general function of collecting ducts?
Receive urine from many nephrons and deliver the final urine product into the calyces and renal pelvis.