Chapter 19: The French Revolution: Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Downfall
|Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica.||his family were minor nobles, but they didn't have much money.|
|At age nine he was sent to France to train for a military career.||-> when the French Revolution began he was eager to make a name for himself.|
|He rose to power very quickly.||Yup|
|Instead of being a General, with a military career, he began a new career as a political leader.|| He overthrew the Directory in 1799.|
soon took the title First Consul.
set up a 3 man board called the Consulate.
|coup d'état||the sudden overthrow of a government.|
|In 1804 Napoleon took the title Emperor of the French.||at each step on his rise to power, Napoleon held a plebiscite, or ballot, and their support was based largely on his policies and emphasis on order|
|plebiscite||a ballot in which voters say yes or no.|
|Napoleon's Reforms:|| restored economic prosperity to France.|
built roads and canals
educated people by creating a system of public schools.
|made peace with the Catholic Church.|| signed the Concordat of 1801, which said:|
the Catholic Church in France will stay under state control
religious freedom for all Catholics.
|Napoleonic code|| longest lasting reform.|
undid some of the reforms of the Revolution.
embodied Enlightenment principal.
women lost most of their rights.
It helped Napoleon win support across class lines.
|From 1804 to 1814, Napoleon spent much time on the Battlefield.|| very affective in the way he uses his army.|
developed new plans for each battle.
even his enemies gave tribute to his leadership.
|By 1810 The Grand Empire reached its peak.||It sure did. =)|
|As Napoleon created his empire he re-drew the map of France.|| the changes that he makes, made the map look different because he annexed, or added, new territory to France.|
abolished the Holy Roman Empire.
redid and replaced with the Confederation of the Rhine.
cut Prussia in half and took half.
|annexed/annex territory.||to add territory onto an existing state or territory.|
|Napoleon put his friends and relatives on the thrones of Europe.||He also forced alliances on European powers.|
|Britain remained outside Napoleon's Empire.|| their Navy kept Napoleon from invading.|
attacked their commerce instead.
imposed the Continental System
closed European ports to British goods, with which Britain responded with a blockade; it failed to break Britain but it intensified resentment against the French in Europe.
|blockade||to shut off a port to block things from coming in and out.|
|Napoleon's successes also planted the seed to his defeat.|| nationalism spread throughout Europe, and led to revolts against France.|
people dislike the Continental System which closed all ports to and from Europe.
|In Spain, there was resistance to foreign rule.|| Spain's king was replaced by Joseph Bonaparte.|
many Spaniards remained faithful to their former king.
If they resisted the were repressed by the French, which intensified their efforts to take down Napoleon.
|guerrilla warfare.||small hit and run raids.( this tactic kept the French troops busy when Napoleon needed them elsewhere.)|
|Austria once again became hostile against the French.||in 1805 Napoleon won a victory against Austro-Russian forces, but they sought revenge in 1809, but unfortunately Napoleon won again. A peace agreement followed, although the loss of the battle was losing land with 3 million people living on it|
|In 1810 Napoleon married an Austrian princess, Marie Louise.||now had a kinship with Austria.|
|Napoleon's ties to Austria were particularly upsetting to the czar of Russia.||Alexander I was the czar at the time|
|In 1812, more than 400,000 soldiers invaded Russia.|| Russians are going to use scorched earth policy.|
set all their crops and houses on fire to leave the French out during the winter and so they have no food while their retreating.
|Napoleon, when in Moscow, Russia he realized he was not going to survive the winter with the soldiers so they retreated home.||Thus caused Napoleon to suffer through a terrible winter|