Chapter 14

Created by lluton 

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Attitude

A cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way.

Attributions

Judgments about what caused a person's behavior-- either characteristics of the person or of the situation

Authoritarianism

The belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization

Big Five Personality Factors

Dimensions that describe an individual's extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

Cognitive Dissonance

A condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict.

Emotion

A mental state that arises spontaneously rather than through conscious effort and is oftern accompanied by physiological changes

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on anothers behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors.

Halo Effect

A type of rating error that occurs when an employee receives the same rating on all dimensions regardless of his or her performance on individual ones.

Job Satisfaction

A positive attitude toward one's job.

Learning

A change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience.

Locus of Control

The tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally).

Machiavellianism

The tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people personal gain.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Personality test that measures a peron's preference for introversion vs. extroversion, sensation vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling, and judging vs perceiving.

Organizational Behavior

An interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations.

Organizational Citizenship

Work behavior that goes beyound job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success.

Organizational Commitment

Loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization.

Perception

The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information.

Perceptual Defense

The tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas, objects, or people that are threatening to them

Perceptual Distortions

Errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process.

Perceptual Selectivity

The process by which individuals screen and select the various stimuli that vie for their attention.

Person-Job Fit

The extent to which a peron's ability and personality match the requirements of a job.

Personality

The set of characterstics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment.

Projection

The tendency to see one's own personal traits in other people.

Role Ambiguity

Uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role

Role Conflict

Incompatible demands of different roles

Self-Confidence

General assurance in one's own ideas, judgment, and capabilities.

Self-efficacy

An individual's strong belief that he or she can successfully accomplish a specific task or outcome.

Self-serving Bias

The tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribuition of external factors to one's failures.

Stereotyping

The tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual.

Stress

A physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual.

Type A Behavior

Behavior pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work.

Type B Behavior

Behavior pattern that lacks Type A characteristics and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle.

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