MicroBiology Final Exam

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Denaturation

When the three-dimensional structure of a protein is disrupted, this phenomenon is called

Lister

Which of the following scientists provided the first research on antisepsis?

Endospores

Dormant, highly resistant forms of cells produced by some bacteria in order to survive are called

Viruses

Which of the following types of microbe was first discovered due to its ability to pass through a filter?

Hypertonic

Which of the following types of solution will draw water out of a cell?

Lost of Electron

When a molecule is oxidized, it has

Mycobacterium

Which of the following microbes contains large amounts of waxy lipids in its cell wall?

Peptide Bonds

The primary structure of a protein is most directly related to which of the following types of bonds?

Trigyclerides

Which of the following is NOT associated with the structure of cytoplasmic membranes?

Degerming

A nurse prepares an area of skin for injection by scrubbing it with an alcohol swab; this process is called

Sterilization

Which of the following terms includes the destruction of bacterial endospores?

Viral Envelope

Antimicrobial agents that disrupt the cell membrane will also damage

It can be plotted on a semilogarithmic graph

Which of the following statements concerning microbial death is correct?

Bacteria

A membrane filter with a pore size of 1.2 micrometers would trap all of the following EXCEPT:

Higher pH

All of the following would contribute to the increased efficiency of an antimicrobial agent EXCEPT

nonionizing radiation

Which of the following microbial control procedures creates pyrimidine dimers in DNA?

The disinfectant is 10 times better than phenol.

An experimental disinfectant has a phenol coefficient of 10 against E. coli. Which of the following is the most accurate interpretation of this data?

in-use test

Which of the following tests gives the most accurate picture of the activity of a disinfectant in a particular environment or application?

Any material that needs to be sterilized should be autoclaved.

All of the following statements concerning autoclaving are true EXCEPT:

Bacillus stearothermophilus.

All of the following microbes are killed by pasteurization EXCEPT:

ultrahigh-temperature sterilization

A particular machine passes milk through steam at a temperature of 140OC for one second and then cools it rapidly. This is an example of

ionizing radiation

All of the following microbial control methods are bacteriostatic EXCEPT:

ultraviolet light

All of the following are examples of ionizing radiation EXCEPT:

quaternary ammonium compounds

Which of the following antimicrobial agents can disrupt the cell membrane?

thimerosal

Which of the following compounds is no longer used to preserve vaccines?

Peracetic Acid

All of the following antimicrobial agents function by chemically cross-linking and inactivating proteins and nucleic acids EXCEPT:

glutaraldehyde

Which of the following is NOT a gaseous antimicrobial agent?

iodophor: alcohol solution of iodine

Which of the following is an incorrect pairing?

3.1 minutes

The decimal reduction time for endospores of Clostridium botulinum is 0.204 minutes at 121OC. How long should it take to reduce a population of 1015 endospores to 1 endospore?

Phospholipids

Peptidoglycan found in bacterial cell walls contains all of the following molecules EXCEPT:

It protects the cell from osmotic forces.

Which of the following is a major purpose of the bacterial cell wall?

Mycolic Acids

Mycobacteria have unique properties in part due to the presence of _____ in their cell walls.

Sigma Factors

All of the following are associated with translation EXCEPT:

30S and 50S

The prokaryotic ribosome is made up of which of the following combinations of subunits?

transamination

All of the following are mechanisms by which genes can be spread through bacterial populations EXCEPT:

competitive inhibition

A type of enzyme control in which a molecule mimics the three-dimensional shape of the enzyme's substrate and interferes directly with the substrate's binding to the active site is called

sterols

Which of the following is unique to most eukaryotic cytoplasmic membranes?

ribosomes

A drug that prevents cells from making proteins might be expected to interfere with the proper functioning of which of the following?

Streptococcus

Which of the following is NOT a genus of an antibiotic-producing microbe?

Antibacterial

The majority of antimicrobial agents are

they dismantle existing peptidoglycan molecules

All of the following are mechanisms of action associated with different types of cell wall inhibiting drugs EXCEPT:

DNA

Which of the following cellular structures or molecules is most similar in both bacteria and humans?

Protein Synthesis

Tetracyclines inhibit which of the following?

Eukaryotic mitochondria have 70S ribosomes

What is the reason that some drugs which inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria can also be harmful to humans?

sulfanilimide

What was the first practical antimicrobial agent to be widely used?

Metronidazole

Which of the following does NOT block the formation of folic acid in bacteria?

Quinolones

The bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase is a target of which of the following drugs?

Polymyxin

All of the following drugs result in the disruption of fungal cytoplasmic membranes EXCEPT:

Oral

Which of the following routes of administration of an antimicrobial drug produces the lowest blood concentration of the drug?

Deactivation of an antimicrobial drug

Beta-lactamases are an example of which of the following mechanisms of resistance?

fomiversan

Which of the following drugs does NOT inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with ribosomes?

trimethoprim

Which of the following drugs interferes with nucleic acid synthesis?

They grow and reproduce very slowly

Why is chemotherapy against Mycobacterium species so problematic?

ciprofloxacin

All of the following drugs inhibit protein synthesis EXCEPT:

nucleotide analogs

Which of the following types of antimicrobial drugs is also effective against rapidly dividing cancer cells?

The antibiotic has disrupted the normal microbiota of the intestine

A patient develops a severe intestinal infection as a result of antibiotic therapy for a respiratory infection. Which of the following is the best explanation for why this occurred?

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