When the three-dimensional structure of a protein is disrupted, this phenomenon is called
Dormant, highly resistant forms of cells produced by some bacteria in order to survive are called
Which of the following types of microbe was first discovered due to its ability to pass through a filter?
Which of the following microbes contains large amounts of waxy lipids in its cell wall?
The primary structure of a protein is most directly related to which of the following types of bonds?
A nurse prepares an area of skin for injection by scrubbing it with an alcohol swab; this process is called
It can be plotted on a semilogarithmic graph
Which of the following statements concerning microbial death is correct?
A membrane filter with a pore size of 1.2 micrometers would trap all of the following EXCEPT:
All of the following would contribute to the increased efficiency of an antimicrobial agent EXCEPT
Which of the following microbial control procedures creates pyrimidine dimers in DNA?
The disinfectant is 10 times better than phenol.
An experimental disinfectant has a phenol coefficient of 10 against E. coli. Which of the following is the most accurate interpretation of this data?
Which of the following tests gives the most accurate picture of the activity of a disinfectant in a particular environment or application?
Any material that needs to be sterilized should be autoclaved.
All of the following statements concerning autoclaving are true EXCEPT:
A particular machine passes milk through steam at a temperature of 140OC for one second and then cools it rapidly. This is an example of
quaternary ammonium compounds
Which of the following antimicrobial agents can disrupt the cell membrane?
All of the following antimicrobial agents function by chemically cross-linking and inactivating proteins and nucleic acids EXCEPT:
The decimal reduction time for endospores of Clostridium botulinum is 0.204 minutes at 121OC. How long should it take to reduce a population of 1015 endospores to 1 endospore?
Peptidoglycan found in bacterial cell walls contains all of the following molecules EXCEPT:
It protects the cell from osmotic forces.
Which of the following is a major purpose of the bacterial cell wall?
Mycobacteria have unique properties in part due to the presence of _____ in their cell walls.
All of the following are mechanisms by which genes can be spread through bacterial populations EXCEPT:
A type of enzyme control in which a molecule mimics the three-dimensional shape of the enzyme's substrate and interferes directly with the substrate's binding to the active site is called
A drug that prevents cells from making proteins might be expected to interfere with the proper functioning of which of the following?
they dismantle existing peptidoglycan molecules
All of the following are mechanisms of action associated with different types of cell wall inhibiting drugs EXCEPT:
Which of the following cellular structures or molecules is most similar in both bacteria and humans?
Eukaryotic mitochondria have 70S ribosomes
What is the reason that some drugs which inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria can also be harmful to humans?
All of the following drugs result in the disruption of fungal cytoplasmic membranes EXCEPT:
Which of the following routes of administration of an antimicrobial drug produces the lowest blood concentration of the drug?
Deactivation of an antimicrobial drug
Beta-lactamases are an example of which of the following mechanisms of resistance?
Which of the following drugs does NOT inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with ribosomes?
They grow and reproduce very slowly
Why is chemotherapy against Mycobacterium species so problematic?
Which of the following types of antimicrobial drugs is also effective against rapidly dividing cancer cells?