PHYS LAB FINAL- Jillian Aldridgr

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metabolism is a broad term referring to

all chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.

catabolism is enzymatically controlled processes in which

substances are broken down to simpler substances

anabolism is process in which

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

enzymes are proteins that

catalyze (increase the rate of) other chemical reactions

Most catabolic reaction are accompanied by

a net release of energy

maintaining body temperature is critically related to

metabolism

Hormones involved in Anabolism

insulin, sex steroids, growth hormone, and thyroxin

Examples of anabolism

glucose to glycogen, fattys acids to triglyceride, and amino acids to protein

Catabolism hormones

glucagon, epinephrine, glucosteroids, growth hormones, and thyroxin

Examples of Catabolism

glycogen to glucose, triglycerides to fatty acids, protein to amino acids

Lean body mass and fat tissue

weight the same but look different

BMI calculation

BMI=weight (lb) X 703/ Height (in2) (english)
BMI=weight (kg)/height (m2)
(1) weight kg=weight lb/2.2
height m= height inches/39.4

Interpret BMI

<19=underweight
19-25=normal weight
25-30=over weight
30-35=obese
35-40=severe obesity
>40=morbidly obese

Nomogram is the ratio weight/height2 the tis read from a

centrals cale after a straight edge is place between height and body weight

skin fold calipers measure the

thickness of the subq fat layer at specific body sites. The measurements are then compared to norms for total body fat.

hydrodensiometry is

underwater weighing

It is one of the most

accurate methods for determining body fat

it is very

expensive and inconvenient

Bioelectric impedance current measures

resistance (fat vs. lean tissue)

Percent body fat is derived

indirectly

Central obesity is associated with

cardiovascular disease, diabetes 2, hypertension, stroke, demetia....

Determination of central obestiy

AHA says above 1.0 for men and above 0.8 for women is associated w/ central obesity (apple shape) below these numbers there is a reduced risk which is pair

how to measure waist to hip ratio

while standing, measure your waist at your navel- record in cm.
while standing measures hips at the greatest circumference and record this value in cm
divide the waist circumference by the hip circ to get the waist-hip ratio

heigh to waist measurement

when waist measurement is more than half the height you are at risk

waist measurement increased risks when

the waist measure of a male exceeds 40 inches (102 cm) and that of female exceeds 35 inches (88cm)

suppose two people have the same height and weight but person A has significantly high bioelectrical impedance than person B. How do the BMI and percentage of body fait compare in these 2 people? explain

....

a college student who gained unwanted weight wishes to lose 20 pounds before graduation ceremonies, 10 month away. By how many kilocalories per week would the student have to reduce intake or increase expenditures to lose the 20 pounds (lb= 3500kcal)

...

how many kilocalories per day would the student had ego lose over the 20 month periods. is this a practical weight loss program...

explain

substance on which a catalyst works is a

substrate

biologic catalyst; protein in nature is a

enzyme

increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product is a

catalyst

provides a standard of comparison for test results is a

control

three characteristics of enzymes

it is not used up and does not change shape in a reaction, it speeds up a reactions, don't know another one

enzymes of the digestive system are classified as hydrolyses...which is what?

it is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bound

salivary amylase organ, site of action, substrate, ph

salivary glands, oral cavity, starch, 6.7-7.0

trypsin organ, soa, substrate, ph

panceras- smal intestine-proteins-8.0

lipase organ, soa substrate, ph

pancreas, small intestine, fats, 7.4

end product of digestion of these foods
protein-,carbs, fats-glycerol n fatty acids

amino acids, glucose, fat- glycerol and fatty acids

people on a strict diet to lose weight begin to metabolize stored fats at an accelerated rate. How does this condition affect blood ph.

decrease blood ph and makes it acidic

secretin and gastrin and produced by

cells in duodenum wall

secretin target organ is

pancreas

gastrin target organ is

stomach

cholecystokinnin produced by/target organ

neurons and gallbladder/pancreas

page 608

...

150 pounds and 10% fat means

you have 15 bounds of fat and 135 pounds of lean body mass

understanding body fat percentage calculations

.....

define reflex

rapid, predictable, involuntary motor response to stimuli-mediated over nural pathways called reflex arc

five essential components of reflex arc

receptor, sensory neuron, intergration center, motor neuron, effector

what is importance of reflex testing

assessing the condition of the nervous system. distorted/exaggerrated may indicate degernation of portions of the nervous system

reflexes classified as somation

crossed extensor reflex, corneal, gag, patellar, plantar, abdominal, and achilles

simple stretch reflexes

achilles and patellar

superficial cord reflexes

abdominal and plantar

autonomic reflexes

pupillary light reflex and ciliospinal

cord mediated reflex

abdominal and plantar

somatic reflexes in with the higher brain center participates

corneal and gag

can the stretch reflex be elicited in an animal where the brain has been destroyed

yes as along as the animal has been killed recently. if there is ATP left in the muscles cells for contractions and in the nerve cells to conduct action potentials the reflex is intact.

trace the reflex arc blah

blah

stimulus is something causing

or regarded as causing a response

adaptation of sensory receptors

changing of a sensory receptor to better suit an organisms environment

why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stiumuli

for protection

why is nonadaptibility of pain receptors important

if ppl get adapt to pain they daily to recognize serious condition like heart attack...pain is only sensation that is also a symptom

why is it dangerous if you didn't have cutaneous organs

bc without them you could touch something w/out cowing your doing harm (burn

referred pain

- pain perceived at a location other than the site of painful stimuli

the eyeball is wrapped in adipose tissue...whats the function?

it's fat tissue and protects the eyeball and works as a cushion

why does one have to blow nose while crying

a percentage of tear is release into nasolacrimal duct then goes to nasal cavity. secretes fluids

what muscle dilates the pupil

dilator pupillae

would you expect the pupil to be dilated in what circumstances and constricted in when

dim light when observing distant objects
constricts in bright light when focusing for near vision

the intrinsic eye muscles are controlled by

autonomic nervous system

aqueous humor

fluid filling the anterior segment of the eye

sclera

white of the eye

optic disc

part of the retina that lacks photreceptors

ciliar body

modification of the choroid that controls the shape of the crystalline lens and contains the cilary muscle

scleral venous sinus

drains the aqueous humor

retin

layer containing rods and cones

vitrous humor

subtance occupying the posteriors segment of the eye

choroid

forms bulk of the heavily pigmented vascular layer

ciliary body and iris are the

smooth muscle structures

aqueous humor, cornea, lens, and vitreous humor are the

light bendings media of the yes

cornea

window on the world- anterior continuation of the sclera

sclera

composed of tough white opaque fibrous connective tissue

refraction

light bending

ability to focus for close (less than 20 ft) vision

accommodation

normal vision

emmetropia

inability to focus well on close objects (farsightedness)

hyperopia

nearsightedness

myopia (can be diagnosed in doctors office)

blurred vision due to unequal curvatures of the lends/cornea

astigmatism

medial movement of the eyes during focusing on close objects

convergence

in farsightedness the light is focused ______ the retina

behind

the lens requires to rest myopia is the _______ lens

concave

the near point increase with age because the ______ of the lens decreases as we get older

flexibiity

a convex lens like that of the eye produces an image that is upside down and reversed from left to right call

a real image

why is vision lost when hitting a blind spot

has no photoreceptors and odes not respond to light

presbyopia

normal,presently unavoidable degeneration of the accommodation power of the eye assoc w/ aging

to which wavelengths of light do the three cones tips of the retina respond maximally

blue pigments (430mm), green pigments (530mm), red pigments (560 mm)

why do we see a great range of colors but only 3 cones exist?

interpretation of the intermediate colors of the visible light spectrum is a result of overlapping input from more than one cone type

difference between binocular and panoramic vision

binocular vision there is a considerable overlap between the visual fields of the left and right eye. panoramic vision the left and right eyes see in two different directions resulting in a panoramic field of view

describe how sound of different frequency of pitches are differentiated in the cochlea

the cochlea is a conical organ wrapped on itself to form a spiral. any vibration that travels through it will move until it reaches a pt where the dimension of the cochlea is related to the frequency, then it will resonate and stimulate sensory cells that are located there

nystagmus

a rapid, involuntary, oscillatory motion of the eyeball-usually side by side

vertigo

sensation of dizziness and rotational movement when such movement is not occurring or has ceased

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