freebooter who saved Jamestown during that colony's first year "starving time" by organizing work gangs to improve food/sanitation and by negotiating temporary permission to settle from Chief Powhatan
Sir Walter Raleigh
English explorer/privateer who established England's first N. American colony--the failed settlement on Roanoke Island.
failed 1st English settlement in N. America; established in 1587 on an island near today's North Carolina; Virginia Dare (1st English child born in America) was born there.
(1600s-early 1700s) English govt's policy of non-intervention in the colonies (taxes were indirect, on goods traded across the Atlantic); this policy of autonomy ended with British victory in the French & Indian War.
English Protestants who refused to accept allegiance to the Church of England. One such group was the Pilgrims involved in founding Plymouth Plantation and other settlements in New England; this group also includes Quakers and Baptists.
church system set up by the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in which each local church served as the center of its own community. Most adherents of this denomination believed themselves loyal to the Church of England, even though their decentralized organizational structure was very different from the heirarchical Anglican Church.
Puritan dissenter who clashed with the ruling class in Mass. over separation of church and state; banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants and sought better treatment of the local Indians.
(1588-1649) governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony; instrumental in forming the colony's religious but relatively democratic government; he preached the "city upon a hill" sermon that envisioned Boston as a center from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
English Quaker who founded Pennsylvania in 1682 after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before; his colony was to be a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
(1) 1676 uprising led by Virginia planter Nathaniel ___, in which a group of 300 settlers waged war against the local Native Americans, and then against VA royal governor (Wm. Berkely); after the rebels burned & looted Jamestown, the uprising collapsed after Bacon's fell sick and died. (2) this event showed increasing hostility between the tidewater elites and backcountry poor in the Chesapeake region and resulted in a shift in the region's labor force from indentured servants to slaves
House of Burgesses
legislature established in 1619 by colonists in Jamestown, Virginia; the first representative government in what is today the US. It consisted of 22 representatives from 11 districts of VA.
dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who preached antinomianism, causing a schism in the Puritan community; her faction lost in a power struggle for the governorship & she was expelled from the colony in 1637; she & her followers established the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
ship that carried the Pilgrims across the Atlantic from the Netherlands to Plymouth Plantation in 1620 (these English Puritans had fled to the Netherlands before heading to the New World).
these organizations were the forerunners to modern corporations, formed to accrue funding for colonization through the sale of public stock; by 1600 the English crown and Parliament were reluctant to spend money on risky colonization attempts after fighting the Spanish for a position in N. America; these companies dominated English colonization during the seventeenth century.
laborers, usually white adult males, who were bound to labor in the colonies for a fixed number of years, after which time they gained freedom and a small amount of land. Some came willingly, but some were criminals, and others were kidnapped or manipulated into coming in order to remedy labor shortages in the colonies.
economic ideology & theory of trade that stressed that a nation's wealth depended on exporting more than it imported; the British version of this system manifested itself in triangular trade and in laws passed between the mid-1600s and the mid-1700s (such as the Navigation Acts) aimed at fostering British economic dominance over and a favorable balance of trade with her colonies.
New England Confederation
a colonial alliance formed (w/out formal royal permission) by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and the encroaching Dutch.
English Separatists who first sought refuge from the Church of England in the Netherlands and then in the New World; one such group traveled in 1620 on the Mayflower and established Plymouth.
English settler in Jamestown who married Pocahontas (daughter of the influential Powhatan chief) and who he introduced the Jamestown colonists to West Indian tobacco in 1616; this crop saved the Jamestown colony, bringing in revenue and immigrants eager for a share in the colony's expanding wealth.
Protestant group that aimed to remove all traces of Catholicism from the Anglican Church & that suffered religious persecution in England; in the early 1600s, many emigrated to the Americas until 1640, when many remained to fight on Cromwell's side in the English Civil War; these people established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in Boston and influenced the whole New England region, with their emphasis on family life, pious restraint of passion, hard work, and the need for education.