Fluids electrolytes and acid base balance 1

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Lecture notes

intracellular

Two thirds of the body's fluid volume is in the ?? compartment

extracellular

?? fluid is the fluid outside of cells

plasma interstitial

?? and ?? fluid are the two subdivisions of the extracellular compartment

60 40

??% of body weight is water which is about ?? L of water

40 25

??% of this fluid is intracellular, which is about ?? L of water

12

?? L of extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid

3

? L of extracellular fluid is plasma

universal

Water is the ?? solvent

electrolytes

?? are inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins

nonelectrolytes

?? are solutes that like glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea

osmotic

Water moves according to ?? gradients

distinct pattern

Each fluid compartment has a ?? ?? of electrolytes

sodium chloride

In extracellular fluids ?? is the chief cation with ?? as the major anion

potassium phosphate

In intracellular fluid, ?? is the chief cation, and ?? is the chief anion

sodium chloride

Intracellular fluid is low on ?? and ??

.9

Normal saline solution (isotonic) is ??% saline

osmolality ADH

Increases in plasma ?? trigger hypothalamic thirst centers and release ???

insensible

Water lost through respiration, sweating, and defecation is called ?? losses

1500

???? ml is the normal daily intake of water

1500

???? ml is the normal output in urine daily

osmoreceptors hypothalamus

?? in the ?? control the release of ADH

posterior pituitary

Hypothalamus stimulates the ?? ?? to release the ADH

sodium osmolality

Increased ?? concentrations in plasma and increased ?? trigger the hypothalamus to increase BP

volume

The hypothalamus increases BP by increasing blood ??

concentrated

Release of ADH cause the urine to be ??

hypotonic hydration

?? ?? is water intoxication or cellular overhydration which can be caused by renal insufficiency or over ingestion of water

edema

?? is atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space causing tissue swelling

osmotic

?? pressure causes the cellular issues for hypo and hyperhydration

ingestion

Salts enter the body by ?? and are eliminated is the normal fashion

sodium

Aldosterone retains ?? in the body

adrenal glands

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone manufactured in the ?? ??

baroreceptors

?? alert the brain to changed in BP

dilate rise sodium water

To reduce BP, the brain causes the afferent arterioles to ?? causing the GFR to ?? and ?? and ?? output increases

pressure diuresis

Increased urine output caused by increased BP is called ?? ??

sodium

Since sodium concentration in blood determines blood volume, the baroreceptors can be considered ?? receptors

increase NaCl

Estrogen caused BP to ?? by enhancing ?? reabsorption by renal tubules

decreases

Progesterone ?? sodium reabsorption

reabsorption

glucocorticoids enhance ?? of sodium

disrupt

hyperkalemia and hypokalemia can ?? electrical conduction in the heart

potassium leaves

When hydrogen ions shift into a cell, a corresponding ?? ?? the cell

cortical collecting ducts

K+ balance is controlled in the ?? ?? ?? by changing the amount of K+ secreted into the filtrate

potassium ion secretion

Aldosterone stimulates ?? ?? ?? by principal cells

Na K

In cortical collecting ducts, for each ?? reabsorbed, a ? is secreted

sodium

Cl follows ?? in the body under normal conditions

acidosis

Few Cl ions are reabsorbed when body is in ??

7.4 7.35

Normal arterial blood has a pH of ?? where venous blood has a pH of ??? because CO2 is acidic

alkalosis

?? is when arterial blood has a pH above 7.45

acidosis

?? is when arterial blood has a pH lower than 7.35

phosphoric

?? acid results from protein breakdown

lactic

?? acid results from glucose breakdown

ketone bodies

?? ?? result from the breakdown of fat

bicarbonate

Hydrogen ions are released when ?? combines with CO2 for transport

nucleic

?? acid is turned into uric acid in the urine

6.0

Normal urine has a pH of ??

acidic

Most food is ??

alkaline

Most veggies are ??

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