Two thirds of the body's fluid volume is in the ?? compartment
?? fluid is the fluid outside of cells
?? and ?? fluid are the two subdivisions of the extracellular compartment
??% of body weight is water which is about ?? L of water
??% of this fluid is intracellular, which is about ?? L of water
?? L of extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid
? L of extracellular fluid is plasma
Water is the ?? solvent
?? are inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins
?? are solutes that like glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
Water moves according to ?? gradients
Each fluid compartment has a ?? ?? of electrolytes
In extracellular fluids ?? is the chief cation with ?? as the major anion
In intracellular fluid, ?? is the chief cation, and ?? is the chief anion
Intracellular fluid is low on ?? and ??
Normal saline solution (isotonic) is ??% saline
Increases in plasma ?? trigger hypothalamic thirst centers and release ???
Water lost through respiration, sweating, and defecation is called ?? losses
???? ml is the normal daily intake of water
???? ml is the normal output in urine daily
?? in the ?? control the release of ADH
Hypothalamus stimulates the ?? ?? to release the ADH
Increased ?? concentrations in plasma and increased ?? trigger the hypothalamus to increase BP
The hypothalamus increases BP by increasing blood ??
Release of ADH cause the urine to be ??
?? ?? is water intoxication or cellular overhydration which can be caused by renal insufficiency or over ingestion of water
?? is atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space causing tissue swelling
?? pressure causes the cellular issues for hypo and hyperhydration
Salts enter the body by ?? and are eliminated is the normal fashion
Aldosterone retains ?? in the body
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone manufactured in the ?? ??
?? alert the brain to changed in BP
dilate rise sodium water
To reduce BP, the brain causes the afferent arterioles to ?? causing the GFR to ?? and ?? and ?? output increases
Increased urine output caused by increased BP is called ?? ??
Since sodium concentration in blood determines blood volume, the baroreceptors can be considered ?? receptors
Estrogen caused BP to ?? by enhancing ?? reabsorption by renal tubules
Progesterone ?? sodium reabsorption
glucocorticoids enhance ?? of sodium
hyperkalemia and hypokalemia can ?? electrical conduction in the heart
When hydrogen ions shift into a cell, a corresponding ?? ?? the cell
cortical collecting ducts
K+ balance is controlled in the ?? ?? ?? by changing the amount of K+ secreted into the filtrate
potassium ion secretion
Aldosterone stimulates ?? ?? ?? by principal cells
In cortical collecting ducts, for each ?? reabsorbed, a ? is secreted
Cl follows ?? in the body under normal conditions
Few Cl ions are reabsorbed when body is in ??
Normal arterial blood has a pH of ?? where venous blood has a pH of ??? because CO2 is acidic
?? is when arterial blood has a pH above 7.45
?? is when arterial blood has a pH lower than 7.35
?? acid results from protein breakdown
?? acid results from glucose breakdown
?? ?? result from the breakdown of fat
Hydrogen ions are released when ?? combines with CO2 for transport
?? acid is turned into uric acid in the urine
Normal urine has a pH of ??
Most veggies are ??
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