Gen Bio II, Animal Biology at St. Scholastica

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Just about Everything You need to know for Dr. Thoemke's Final Exam

Eyespots

Don't Function in Vision

Ganglia

Centralized Sensory Structures (Cephalization)

Gastrovascular Cavity

Functions in Both Digestion and Circulation

Reproductive Polyp

Bud off to produce medusa by asexual reproduction

Anthoza

1) Sea Anomones
2) Most Corals
3) Sea fans

Cuboza

Box Jellies and Sea Wasps

Scyphozoa

Jellies and Sea nettles

Hydrazoa

1)Portuguese man-of-wars
2)hydras
3)obelia
4)some corals

Classes Of Phylum in Cnidaria

1)Hydrozoa
2)Scyphoza
3)Cuboza
4)Anthozoa

Cnidocyte

Organelles uniques to Cnidarians, functions to explode outward to extend the thread.

Nematocyst

Contains stinging thread, can penetrated body wall of prey or entangles prey.

Thread

Extend in response to touch or chemosensation

Medusa

Motile flattened, mouth and tentacles down free-floating or contact.

Polyp

Cylindrical form adhere to substrate and extend tentacles upward, non motile

Mesoglea

Gelatinous matrix between inner and outer cell layers

Cnidarian Body Plan

Contains a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity

Gastrovascular

"Digest-circulation"

3 Major Clades of Bilateral Animals

1) Lophotrochozoa *
2)Ecodysozoa
3)Deuterosome

Invertebrates

Lack a back bone
Account for about 95% of known animal species
Economically, ecologically and medically important

Phylum

(plural -phyla)
Grouping of organisms with a similar basic 'body plan'

Species

A group of organisms that can potentially breed with one another

Convergent Evolution

Independent evolution of structures that are similar between species that are not closely related

Spongocoel

Internal Cavity of sponge

Pore of Sponge

Where water enters sponge

Osculum

Exit of sponge tissue

Choanocyte

Flagellated cell with a collar of protoplasm at the base of the flagellum

True Tissues

Specialized cells that function as a unit and are separated by a membrane

Amoebocytes

Digest food, differentiate into other cell types
-Transport nutrients to other cells
-Produce skeletal cell types

Spicules

small, spike shaped particles of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that make up the skeleton of some sponges

Epidermis

Outer cell layer

Mesophyl

Gelatinous layer between inner and outer layers of sponge

2 Phyla of Sponges

1) Calcarea
2)Silicea

Gastrodermis of Cnidarians

Inner cell layer
Function in digestion

Cnidarians

Range of sessile or motive forms
-Lack cephalization, and noncentralized nerve net

Sea Wasp

Cnidarian that secretes lethal poison

Hermaphrodite

Eggs and sperm produced in one organism

Suspension Feeders

Capture food suspended in water
-Most are hermaphrodites

Indeterminate of __________ Development

Deutersosome-Cell fate is specified in embryo. Isolate one cell and it will divide developing an embryo

Radial of _________ Development

Deuterosome- Cleavage planes are parallel or perpendicular to vertical axis

Determinate of ________Development

Protosome- cell fate specified easily
isolate one cell and it divides and never produces embryo

Spiral of ________Development

Protosome-Planes of cell division are diagonal to vertical axis of embryo

Deutersome

Anus develops from Blastopore

Protosome

"First mouth"
Mouth develops from Blastopore

Events in Embryogenesis

1) Cleavage
2) Coelom formation
3) Blastopore

Soft Bodied Coelomates

Non-compressible fluid in coelom; provides structural support (act as skeleton)

Acoelomates

Lack a body cavity

Pseudocoelomates

Body cavity formed from mesoderm and endoderm
* Fully functional body cavity

Coelem

fluid-filled or air filled body cavity lined with mesoderm
-Acts as cushion for internal organs

Coelomates

Possess a "true" coelem - forms a mesoderm

Diploblastic

Lack Mesoderm
-Cnidarians (jellies, coral, hydra),
-having 2 germ layers: ectoderm and endoderm.

Triploblastic and animals

Animals with bilateral symmetry
- Contain all 3 germ Layers
(Flatworms, Arthropods, Vertebrates)

Mesoderm

Between Ectoderm and Endoderm in embryo
-Gives rise to muscle and most organs between digestive tract and outer covering.

Endoderm

Innermost layer in embryo, lines digestive tract and gives rise to digestive organs (liver and lung)

Ectoderm

Outermost layer in embryo, gives rise to outer covering of animal (skin) and also central nervous system

The 3 Germ Layers (Inner to Outer)

1) Endoderm
2) Mesoderm
3) Ectoderm

Gastrulation

Inward folding of the early embryo due to cell migration.
-Embryo layers develop here

Tissues

Collections of specialized cells that are separated from other tissues by membranes

Cephalization

Sensory Structures at anterior
-Brain

Body Symmetry

-2 sided
-Dorsal and ventral sides
-Left and Right
-Anterior and posterior sides
-Cephalization
-Triploblastic tissue organization

Radial Symmetry

-Dorsal and Ventral Sides
-Lack Left and right
-Lack Anterior and posterior
-Lack Cephalization
-Can be divided into equal but opposite halves by a plane through the central axis

Characterizations of Animals

Body Plans
*Symmetry
*Tissue organization
*Type of body cavity
*Protostome or Deuterostome Development

"Body Plans"

Morphological and Developmental traits

Collar cells

flagellated cells that push water through a sponge
-Found in animals, never plants

3 Lines of evidence that choanoflagellates are closely related to animals

1)Morphological similarity between collar cells of choanoflagellates
2) Molecular Genetic Data- rRNA sequences of choanoflagellates and animals
3) Include cnidaria, flatworms, echinoderms

Choanoflagellates

Unicellular Colonial Eukaryote

Animal Kingdom

Great Diversity of living and extinct species
about 99% of all species that lived are extinct

2 Protective Mechanisms of Monogeneans and Trematodes

1) Tough Outer Covering
2) Molecular Mimicry

Molecular Mimicry

Mimic surface proteins of host cells to avoid immune detection

Trematode Example

Blood Fluke

Blood Fluke

>200 million people world wide infected with these. -Pain, Anemia, dysentary

Tapeworms

Parasitic Flatworm, infects vertebrates.
Lack a mouth and gastrovascular cavity.
Sexual Reproduction-produces 1000's of eggs in proglotids

Rotifers

freshwater, marine, or terrestrial
Animals because they are multicellular & possess specialized organs
-alimentary canal
-pseudocoelomates

Parthenogenic

Females reproduce without males, unfertilized eggs develop as females

Cycliophora

Only one species, lives only on mouthparts of lobsters. -Males inject sperm into females while they are still developing in mother.

Ectoproct

Resemble clumps of moss
Contain exoskeleton with pores & lophophore extends through pores.
-Marine and freshwater

Lophophore

Ciliated tentacle

Brachiopods

Have a hinged shell with dorsal & ventral side
-Marine
-Sessile, suspension feeders attach to sea floor via stalk

Molluscs

Snails, Slugs, oysters, clams, octopuses, squid

-Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial

Soft bodied coelomates that secrete a hard shell, Both sexes, occasionally hermaphroditic

Mollusca Classes

-Polyplacophora
-Gastropoda
-Bivalvia
-Cephalopoda

Chitons (Polyplacophora)

Marine
cling to rocks at low tide
Shell with 8 dorsal plates
no distinct head

Gastropods

3/4 of living molluscs are these
Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
head and symmetrical body
possess coiled shell usually

Bivalves

Marine and freshwater
reduced head
suspension feeders
mostly sessile

Cephlapods

Only molluscs with closed circulatory system (blood vessels separate from lymph vessels)
Most intelligent invertebrate
marine
active predators
Well developed sensory organs and complex brain

Closed Circulatory System

Blood vessels separate from lymph vessels

Open Circulatory System

Circulatory fluid, open ended vessels bathe tissues and organ

Annelids

Segmented Worms
Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
coelomates

Classes Of Annelida

1) Oligochaeta
2) Polychaeta
3) Hirudinea

Ogliochaetes

Earthworms and aquatic species
hermaphroditic
hydrostatic skeleton
circulatory system and nervous system

Chaeta

bristles made of chitin

Polychaetes

More chaeta per segment than ogliochaetes
mostly marine
well developed head, circulatory system and nervous system

Leeches

mostly freshwater, also marine and terrestrial
predators that feed on other invertebrates
Parasites with blade like jaws to pierce skin or secrete digestive enzymes to make hole in skin.

hirudin

Anitcoagulent
prevents blood from clotting

recombinent hirudin

used during surgery to dissolve/prevent blood clots.

Ecdysozoans

Most species rich animal group
cuticle covering
cuticle shed thru molting

Phyla of Ecdysozoans

1)Nematoda
2) Arthropods

Nematodes

(round worms) round smooth body; have a tube within a tube body plan, separate mouth and anus; no circulatory system; some free living, some parasite

Caenorhabditis Elegans

Single hermaphrodite
>300 progeny produced
Life cycle of 3 days (Egg-adult)
transparent body
have human homologs

Arthropods

A group of organisms that have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, bilateral symmetry, and reproduce sexually; insects, arachnids, millipedes and cenitpedes, and crustaceans

Subphyla Of Arthropoda

1) Cheliceriformes
2) Myriapoda
3) Hexapoda
4) Crustacea

Cheliceriforms

have clawlike feeding appendages (pincers or fangs)

Myriapods

Thought to be one of the first animals to inhabit land
terrestrial
milipedes (herbivores) and centipedes (carnivors with poison claws)

Insects (Hexapoda)

most species rich subphylum
terrestrial, marine, and freshwater
mate only once a lifetime
have spermatheca

Spermatheca

specialized organ for storing sperm, allows production of fertilized eggs for entire lifespan.

A key to success in Insects

Flight

Crustaceans

have highly specialized appendages
gas exchange in smaller species thru cuticle, larger species have gills
marine and freshwater

Echinoderms

"spiny skin" thin epidermis covering endoskeleton
slow moving or sessile, marine
deuterosome

Chordates

-notochord
-dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-pharyngeal slits
-muscular post anal tail
*Same embyronic features in humans.

Classes of Echinodermata

1) Asteroidea
2)Ophiurodea
3) Echinoidea
4) Crinoidea
5) Holothuroidea
6) Concentricycyloidea

Tunicates (Urochordata)

Adults are sessile
swimming larvae
undergo complex metamorphoses
resorb tail, notochord and nervous system degenerates

Lancelets (cephalchordata)

rare marine animals
Buried in sea floor with anterior end exposed for feeding

Traits of Chordates

Notochord
Dorsal, hollow nerve core
Pharyngeal slits or clefts
Muscular post anal tail

Notochord

longitudinal flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord, provides skeletal support

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to notochord

nerve cord develops into central nervous system: brain and spinal cord

Pharyngeal Slits or Clefts

connect pharynx to outside of body

Pharyngeal slits functions

-Suspension- feeding structures in invertebrate chordates
-gas exchange in vertebrates
-develop into parts of ear, head, and neck

Muscular, Post Anal Tail

tail posterior to anus
contains both skeletal and muscle elements
function in propelling force in aquatic species

Hox genes

conserved in most organisms
function in spatial organization of body

Craniates

Chordates that have a head
possess -skull
-brain
-eyes

Derived Characteristics of Craniates

Craniates= 2 clusters of Hox genes
while Lancelets and tunicates= only 1

Neural Crest

Unique to Craniates
group of cells located near dorsal margins of neural tube

Aquatic Craniates

Pharyngeal clefts evolved into gill slits

Craniates have....

-A heart with at least 2 chambers
-Red blood cells with hemoglobin
-Kidneys

Hagfishes

Most basal surviving Craniate
cartilaginous skull
lack jaws and vertebrae
axial rod of cartilage derived from notochord

Lampreys

most basal living lineage of vertebrates
jawless vertebrates
cartilaginous skeleton

Gnathostomes

Vertebrates with jaws- that evolved from skeletal rods of pharyngeal slits

Oviparous

eggs hatch outside mother's body

Ovoviviparous

Embryo develops w/in uterus and receives nourishment from egg yolk

Viviparous

embryo develops w/in uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac from mother's blood

Osteichthyes

include bony fish and tetrapods
possess a bony endoskeleton

ray finned Fishes

possess fins supported by long flexible rays modified for maneuvering and defense

Lobe fins

have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins

Lineages of Lobe Fins

-Coelacanths
-lungfishes
-tetrapods

Tetrapods Adaptions

-Four Limbs and feet with digits
-Ears for detecting airborne sounds

Amphibian

"Both ways of Life"
refers to metamorphosis of aquatic larva into terrestrial adult

Amniotes

tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg

Extraembryonic membranes

-amnion
-chorion
-yolk sac
-allantois

Reptiles

-scales create a waterproof barrier
-lay shelled eggs on land

ectothermic

absorb external heat as main source of body heat

Endothermic

generate their own body heat through metabolism

Boxlike shell

upper and lower shells fused to vertebrae clavicles and ribs

Turtles

Inhabit deserts, ponds, lakes, and sea
boxlike shell

Leatherback

largest living turtle

Birds

Adapted to flight
wings with keratized feather
-lack a urinary bladder
-females have 1 ovary
-both sexes gonads reduced in size
-lost teeth

Contour Feathers

Adapted/used for flight

Downy Feathers

lack hooks; barbs trap air for insulation

Mammals

-Have mammary glands to produce milk
-hair
-larger brain than other vertebrates of same size
-Differentiated teeth

Synapsids

amniotes distinguished by a single hole in each side of skull

Lineages of Mammals

-monotremes
-marsupials
-eutherians

Monotremes

small group of egg-laying mammals
Echnida and Platypus

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