Set 1

Created by benjaming 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Heather+Ben=Amazing

Activation energy, delta G double dagger

The amount of energy (in joules) required to convert all the molecules in 1 mole of a reacting substance from the ground state to the transition state

Anabolism

The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-requiring biosynthesis of cell components from smaller precursors

Archaebacteria

One of the five kingdoms of living organisms; includes many species that thrive in extreme environments of high ionic strength, high temperature, or low pH

Eubacteria

One of the five kingdoms of living organisms. Eubacteria have a plasma membrane but no internal organelles or nucleus

Catabolism

The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules

Chiral center

An atom with substituents arranged so that the molecule is not superimposable on its mirror image

Configuration

The spatial arrangement of an organic molecule that is conferred by the presence of either (1) double bonds, about which there is no freedom of rotation, or (2) chiral centers, around which substituent groups are arranged in a specific sequence. Configurational isomers cannot be interconverted without breaking one or more covalent bonds

Conformation

The spatial arrangement of substituent groups that are free to assume different positions in space, without breaking any bonds, because of the freedom of bond rotation

Cytoskeleton

The filamentous network providing structure and organization to the cytoplasm; includes actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments

Endergonic reaction

A chemical reaction that consumes energy (that is, for which delta G is positive)

Enthalpy, H

The heat content of a system

Entropy, S

The extent of randomness or disorder in a system

Equilibrium

The state of a system in which no further net change is occurring; the free energy is at a minimum

Eukaryote

A unicellular or multicellular organism with cells having a membrane-bounded nucleus, multiple chromosomes, and internal organelles

Exergonic reaction

A chemical reaction that proceeds with the release of free energy (that is, for which delta G is negative)

Free-energy change, delta G

The component of the total energy of a system that can do work at constant temperature and pressure

Genome

All the genetic information encoded in a cell or virus

Metabolism

The entire set of enzyme-catalyzed transformations of organic molecules in living cells; the sum of anabolism and catabolism

Metabolite

A chemical intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions of metabolism

Mutation

An inheritable change in the nucleotide sequence of a chromosome

Nucleus

In eukaryotes, a membrane-bounded organelle that contains chromosomes

Prokaryote

A bacterium; a unicellular organism with a single chromosome, no nuclear envelope, and no membrane-bounded organelles

Standard free-energy change, delta G degree

The free-energy change for a reaction occuring under a set of standard conditions: temperature, 298K, pressure 1 atm, and all solutes at 1M concentration

Stereoisomers

Compounds that have the same composition and the same order of atomic connections, but different molecular arrangements

Systems biology

Biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactionsin biological systems, thus using a new perspective (holism versus reductionism) to study them.

amphipathic

Containing both polar and nonpolar domains

bond energy

The energy required to break a bond

buffer

A system capable of resisting changes in pH, consisting of a conjugate acid-base pair in which the ratio of proton acceptor to proton donor is near unity

condensation

Formation of a bond accompanied by the release of the elements of water from the joining atoms

conjugate acid-base pair

A proton donor and its corresponding deprotonated species; for example, acetic acid (donor) and acetate (acceptor)

dissociation constant (K{a})

(1) An equilibrium constant (K{d}) for the dissociation of a complex of two or more biomolecules into its comjponents; for example, dissociation of a substrate from an enzyme. (2) The dissociation constant (K{a}) of an acid, describing its dissociation into its conjugate base and a proton

equilibrium constant (K{eq})

A constant, characteristic for each chemical reaction; relates the specific concentrations of all reactants and products at equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

An equation relating the pH, the pK(a), and the ratio of the concenrations of the proton-acceptor (A<->) and proton-donor (HA) species in a solution

hydrogen bond

A weak electrostatic attraction between one electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen) and a hydrogen atom covalently linked to a second electronegative atom

hydrolysis

Cleavage of a bond, such as an anhydride or peptide bond, by the addition of the elements of water, yielding two or more products

hydrophilic

Polar or charged; describing molecules or groups that associate with (dissolve easily in) water

hydrophobic

Nonpolar; describing molecules or groups that are insoluble in water

hydrophobic interactions

The association of nonpolar groups, or compounds, with each other in aqueous systems, driven by the tendency of the surrounding water molecules to seek their most stable (disordered) state

hypertonic

Describes a solution of higher osmolarity than that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane

hypotonic

Describes a solution of lower osmolarity than that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane

ion product of water (K{W})

The product of the concentrations of H<+> and OH<-> in pure water: K{W} = [H<+>][OH<->] = 1 x 10<-14> at 25 degrees C

isotonic

Describes a solution of the same osmolarity as that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane

London forces

London Dispersion Forces, named after the German-American physicist Fritz London, are weak intermolecular forces that arise from the interactive forces between temporary multipoles in molecules without permanent multipole moments. London dispersion forces are also known as dispersion forces, London forces, or induced dipole-dipole forces

micelle

An aggregate of amphipathic molecules in water, with the nonpolar portions in the interior and the polar portions at the exterior surface, exposed to water

osmolarity

Osmolarity is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles of solute per liter of solution (osmol/L). The osmolarity of a solution is usually expressed as Osm (pronounced osmolar), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as M (pronounced molar). Whereas molarity measures the number of moles of solute per unit volume of solution, osmolarity measures the number of moles of solute particles per unit volume of solution

osmosis

Bulk flow of water through a semipermeable membrane into another aqueous compartment containing solute at a higher concentration

pH

The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution

pK(a)

The negative logarithm of an equilibrium constant

titration curve

A plot of the pH versus the equivalents of base added during titration of an acid

van der Waals interactions

The attractive or repulsive force between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds or to the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set