Management Test Final-Part 4

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the three components of__________are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort

motivation

McClelland's Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are the needs for:

power, achievement, and affiliation

according to Alderfer's ERG theory, the lowest-order need is

existence

according to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces:

tension

which of the following statements about needs is true?

higher-order needs will generally not motivate people as long as lower-order needs remain unsatisfied

on the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are:

higher-order and lower-order needs

a group of actors gather to read the critical reviews of the new play they presented to audiences last night. The actors are looking for________rewards

extrinsic

which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?

a salary of increase

managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by:

asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs

what practical steps can managers take to motivate employees to increase their effort?

satisfy employees' lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs

according to_____,people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly

equity theory

the two basic kinds of iniquity are:

underreward or overreward

how do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?

by doing any of them

______is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated

distributive justice

the_________states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards

expectancy theory

when an employee uses leaving as a mechanism for restoring equity, he or she may:

do all of these

in expectancy theory,______ is the perceived relationship between performance and rewards

instrumentality

reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of:

its consequences

the two parts of reinforcement are:

reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement

users of GM Master Cards earn money toward the purchase of a new General Motors car or truck every time they use this credit card to make purchases. The rebate increases the more times the credit card is used. GM is using:

positive reinforcement

which of the following is NOT a type of reinforcement contingency?

overreward

which of the following is also called avoidance learning?

negative reinforcement

in an______reinforcement schedule, a consequence follows every instance of a behavior

continuous

a____is a target, objective, or result

goal

__is the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals

goal acceptance

effective managers define____as the process of influencing others o achieve group or organizational goals

leadership

which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?

inspiring and motivating others

which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?

organizations need both leaders and managers

the term____refers to subordinate, task, and or organizational characteristics that make leaders redundant or unnecessary

leadership substitutes

the term____refers to subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that can interfere with a leader's actions or make it impossible for a leader to influence followers' performance

leadership neutralizers

relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the___of leadership

trait theory

leaders who possess the trait of_are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence

self-confidence

successful business leaders are not like other people. Successful business leaders:

are accurately described by all of these

which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior

concern for peopke

college football coaches are often high in_____. They design every facet of practices, set goals, for their players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the game

initiating structure

research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on____, consideration impacts primarily on_____.

job performance; job satisfaction

which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?

none of these

which of the following is an example of situational theory of leadership?

Fiedler's contingency theory

which of the following leadership theories assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change

none of these

Fielder's contingency theory assumes

leaders are effective when their work groups perform well

which of the following approaches to implementing Fielder's contingency theory in the workplace has proven effective?

accurately measuring and matching leaders to situationss

which of the following is NOT one of the four leadership styles identified in the path-goal theory of leadership

charismatic

the two types of worker readiness identified by the Hersey and Blanchard's situational thepry are:

job readiness and psychological readiness

according to the Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory, which of the following is NOT an example of a leadership style?

empowering

the normative decision theory

helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making

the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model is another name for the:

normative decision theory

the two kinds of charismatic leaders are referred to as:

ethical charismatic and unethical charismatic

____generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group

transformational leadership

which leadership style would be most likely to rely on positive and negative reinforcement

transactional

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