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A&P, BI 233, PCC

1) Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the:

A) Pharynx.
B) Stomach.
C) Spleen.
D) Esophagus.
E) Colon.

C) Spleen

2) Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?

A) stomach
B) colon
C) esophagus
D) pancreas
E) spleen

D) Pancreas

3) Which of the following is not a digestive function?

A) mechanical processing
B) absorption
C) filtration
D ingestion
E) compaction

C) Filtration

4) The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the:

A) Muscularis mucosa.
B) Serosa.
C) Mucosa.
D) Adventitia.
E) Submucosa.

C) Mucosa

5) The myenteric plexus is:

A) A layer of longitudinal smooth muscle.
B) The mucus-secreting layer of the digestive tract.
C) A network of neurons.
D) Primarily composed of connective tissue.
E) A layer of circular smooth muscle.

C) A network of neurons

6) Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.

A) mucosa
B) submucosal plexus
C) muscularis mucosa
D) adventitia
E) submucosa

C) muscularis mucosa

7) The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold some of the visceral organs in their: proper position.

A) lamina propria
B) mesenteries
C) adventitia
D) serosa
E) fibrosa

B) mesenteries

8) Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the:

A) Adventitia.
B) Serosa.
C) Mucosa.
D) Submucosal plexus.
E) Lamina propria.

D) Submucosal plexus

9) Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the:

A) Submucosal plexus.
B) Mucosa.
C) Muscularis mucosa.
D) Submucosa.
E) Myenteric plexus.

E) Myenteric plexus.

10) Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the:

A) Mucosa.
B) Submucosa.
C) Serosa.
D) Adventitia.
E) Muscularis.

B) Submucosa.

11) The layer of loose connective tissue beneath the digestive epithelium is the:

A) Submucosal plexus.
B) Myenteric plexus.
C) Submucosa.
D) Muscularis mucosae.
E) Lamina propria.

E) Lamina propria.

12) A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the:

A) Stomach.
B) Oral cavity.
C) Esophagus.
D) Oropharynx.
E) Rectum.

A) Stomach.

13) A modification of the digestive epithelium that allows expansion of the organ is the presence of:

A) Large amounts of skeletal muscle.
B) Mucous glands.
C) Ciliated columnar cells.
D) Flat surfaces.
E) Folds or pleats.

E) Folds or pleats.

14) In visceral smooth muscle:

A) When one muscle cell contracts, the contraction spreads as a wave through the whole tissue.

B) Contraction can only be stimulated by neurotransmitters.

C) The cells are linearly arranged as long fibers.

D) Adjacent cells are connected by synapses.

E) The cells are interconnected through intercalated disks.

A) When one muscle cell contracts, the contraction spreads as a wave through the whole tissue.

15) Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract from one point to another are called:

A) Segmentation.
B) Churning movements.
C) Peristalsis.
D) Pendular movements.
E) Mastication.

C) Peristalsis.

16) Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called:

A) Defecation.
B) Haustral churning.
C) Pendular movements.
D) Segmentation.
E) Mass movements.

E) Mass movements.

17) The activities of the digestive system are regulated by:

A) Hormones.
B The contents of the digestive tract.
C) Parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons.
D) all of the above
E) A and B only

D) all of the above

18) The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except:

A) Digestion of cholesterol fats.
B) Mechanical processing of food.
C) Lubrication.
D) Digestion of carbohydrates.
E) Analysis of material before swallowing.

A) Digestion of cholesterol fats.

19) ________ Pair of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity.

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

C) 3

20) The ________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar.

A) parotid
B) submaxillary
C) submandibular
D) vestibular
E) sublingual

A) parotid

21) The passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx is the:

A) Palatoglossal arch.
B) Uvula.
C) Fauces.
D) Pharyngeal arch.
E) Palatopharyngeal arch.

C) Fauces.

22) Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except:

A) Aiding in speech.
B) Manipulation of food.
C) Mechanical processing of food.
D) Sensory analysis of food.
E) Partitioning off the oral pharynx from the nasal pharynx.

E) Partitioning off the oral pharynx from the nasal pharynx.

23) The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called:

A) Cementum.
B) Periodontium.
C) Enamel.
D) Pulp.
E) Dentin.

E) Dentin.

24) The portion of a tooth that receives blood vessels and nerves is the:

A) Enamel.
B) Dentin.
C) Cementum.
D) Periodontum.
E) Pulp.

E) Pulp.

25) The root of a tooth is covered by:

A) Pulp.
B) The root canal.
C) Cementum.
D) Enamel.
E) Dentin.

C) Cementum.

26) The crown of a tooth is covered by:

A) Pulp.
B) Periodontum.
C) Cementum.
D) Enamel.
E) Dentin.

D) Enamel.

27) During deglutition:

A) The upper esophageal sphincter opens.
B) The larynx elevates and the epiglottis opens.
C) The soft palate elevates.
D) all of the above
E) A and C only

E) A and C only

28) Which of the following is false about secretions from the salivary glands?

A) help lubricate the oral cavity and its contents

B) contain enzymes for the digestion of complex carbohydrates

C) help control bacterial populations in the mouth

D) contain enzymes for the digestion of simple sugars

E) are mostly water

D) contain enzymes for the digestion of simple sugars

29) The lateral walls of the oral cavity are formed by the:

A) Fauces.
B) Gingiva.
C) Cheeks.
D) Vestibule.
E) pharynx

C) Cheeks.

30) The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the:

A) Larynx.
B) Pharynx.
C) cheek.
D) fauces.
E) vestibule.

E) vestibule.

31) The pink ridge that surrounds the bases of the teeth is the:

A) Uvula.
B) Gingiva.
C) vestibule.
D) faux.
E) alveolus.

B) Gingiva.

32) The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the:

A) Faux.
B) Lingual frenulum.
C) Labial frenulum.
D) Uvula.
E) Glossal connection.

B) Lingual frenulum.

33) The uvula is located at the:

A) Posterior margin of the soft palate.
B) Margin of the vestibule.
C) Base of a tooth.
D) Margin of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx.
E) Posterior of the tongue.

A) Posterior margin of the soft palate.

34) ________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or chopping.
A) Molars
B) Canines
C) Cuspids
D) Bicuspids
E) Incisors

E) incisors

35) ________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing & shredding.

A) Molars
B) Incisors
C) Cuspids
D) Wisdom teeth
E) Bicuspids

C) Cuspids

36) _______ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for grinding.

A) Molars
B) Eye teeth
C) Dentins
D) Cuspids
E) Canines

A) Molars

37) The esophagus:

A) Extends from the fauces to the stomach.
B) Functions in digestion of carbohydrates.
C) Is a muscular tube.
D) Has a thick lining that will tolerate stomach acid.
E) Releases digestive enzymes that begin the digestion of peptides.

C) Is a muscular tube.

38) Functions of the stomach include all of the following, except:

A) Storage of ingested food.
B) Mechanical breakdown of food
C) Denaturation of proteins.
D) Absorption of dipeptides.
E) Initiation of protein digestion.

D) Absorption of dipeptides.

39) Parietal cells secrete:

A) Enterokinase.
B) Pepsinogen.
C) Hydrochloric acid.
D) Mucus.
E) gastrin

C) Hydrochloric acid.

40) Chief cells secrete:

A) Hydrochloric acid.
B) Mucus.
C) Pepsinogen.
D) Gastrin.
E) Intrinsic factor.

C) Pepsinogen.

41) Enteroendocrine cells of the stomach secrete:

A) Secretin.
B) Pepsin.
C) Cholecystokinin.
D) Enterokinase.
E) Gastrin.

E) Gastrin.

42) The portion of the stomach that connects to the esophagus is the:

A) Body.
B) Cardia.
C) Antrum.
D) Fundus.
E) Pylorus.

B) Cardia.

43) The bulge of the greater curvature of the stomach superior to the esophageal junction is the:

A) Fundus.
B) Pylorus.
C) Body.
D) Antrum.
E) Cardia.

A) Fundus.

44) The large area of the stomach between the fundus and the J curve is the:

A) Body.
B) Pylorus.
C) Cardia.
D) Antrum.
E) Fundus.

A) Body.

45) The curved, tubular portion of the J-shaped stomach is the:

A) Cardia.
B) Fundus.
C) Pylorus.
D) Antrum.
E) Body.

C) Pylorus.

46) The prominent ridges in the lining of the stomach are called:

A) papillae.
B) villi.
C) Plicae.
D) Rugae.
E) Cardia.

D) Rugae.

47) The greater omentum is:

A) A fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.

B) Attached to the stomach at the lesser curvature.

C) Important in the digestion of fats.

D) A major portion of the stomach.

E) A sheet of connective tissue that attaches the stomach to the liver and pancreas.

A) A fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.

48) Gastric pits are:

A) Pockets in the lining of the stomach that contain secretory cells.
B) Located in the esophagus.
C) Areas where proteins are digested.
D) Ridges in the body of the stomach.
E) Involved in absorption of liquids from the stomach.

A) Pockets in the lining of the stomach that contain secretory cells.

49) The enzyme pepsin digests:

A) Proteins.
B) carbohydrates.
C) lipids.
D) vitamins.
E) Nucleic acids.

A) Proteins.

50) A proteinase that is produced in the stomachs of newborn infants and that functions in the digestion of milk protein is:

A) Cholecystokinin.
B) Pepsin.
C) Rennin.
D) Trypsin.
E) Gastrin.

C) Rennin

51) Lacteals:

A) Produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine.
B) Produce hormones.
C) Secrete digestive enzymes.
D) Increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
E) Carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries.

E) Carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries.

52) Plicae and intestinal villi:

A) Increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
B) Secrete digestive enzymes.
C) Produce hormones.
D) Carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries.
E) Produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine.

A) Increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.

53) Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of the:

A) Duodenum.
B) Jejunum.
C) Ileum.
D) Liver.
E) Pancreas.

A) Duodenum.

54) The duodenal ampulla is formed by the fusion of the:

A) Duodenum & the pancreatic duct.
B) Common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
C) Duodenum with the jejunum.
D) Duodenum and the bile duct.
E) Duodenum with the pylorus.

B) Common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.

55) The plicae circulares achieve maximum size and the villi are most developed in the:

A) Stomach.
B) Pancreas.
C) Jejunum.
D) Duodenum.
E) Colon.

C) Jejunum.

56) Peyer's patches are characteristic of the:

A) Colon.
B) Stomach.
C) Duodenum.
D) Ileum.
E) Jejunum.

D) Ileum.

57) Absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by all of the following, except:

A) Intestinal movements.
B) The microvilli.
C) Its reduced length.
D) The villi.
E) The plicae circulares.

C) Its reduced length

58) The most striking aspect of intestinal histology is the:

A) Variety of the cells lining the mucosa.
B) Large number of goblet cells.
C) Large number of endocrine cells.
D) Complexity of the enzyme-secreting cells.
E) Adaptations for increasing absorptive area.

E) Adaptations for increasing absorptive area.

59) The portion of the small intestine that is attached to the pylorus of the stomach is the:

A) Jejunum.
B) Cecum.
C) Ileum.
D) Colon.
E) Duodenum.

E) Duodenum.

60) The middle portion of the small intestine is the:

A) Cecum.
B) leum.
C) Duodenum.
D) Jejunum.
E) Pylorus.

D) Jejunum.

61) The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the large intestine is the:

A) Cecum.
B) Duodenum.
C) Appendix.
D) Jejunum.
E) Ileum.

E) Ileum.

62) Plicae circulares are:

A) Transverse folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.
B) Sacculations in the colon.
C) Abnormal structures formed by excessive pressure in the small intestine.
D) Ridges in the wall of the stomach.
E) Fingerlike projections on the surface of the mucosa of the small intestine.

A) Transverse folds in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine.

63) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the secretion of the duodenal glands is:

A) Cholecystokinin.
B) Secretin.
C) Gastrin.
D) Enterocrinin.
E) GIP.

D) Enterocrinin.

64) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery secretion that is high in bicarbonate ion is:

A) Enterocrinin.
B) GIP.
C) Cholecystokinin.
D) Secretin.
E) Gastrin.

D) Secretin.

65) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is:

A) Enterokinase.
B) Cholecystokinin.
C) Gastrin.
D) GIP (Gastric inhibitory peptide)
E) Secretin.

B) Cholecystokinin (CCK)

66) An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is:

A) Enterocrinin.
B) Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
C) Cholecystokinin.
D) Secretin.
E) Enterokinase.

B) Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).

67) An intestinal hormone that stimulates parietal cells and chief cells in the stomach to secrete is:

A) Enterokinase.
B) Cholecystokinin.
C) Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
D) Intestinal gastrin.
E) Secretin.

D) Intestinal gastrin.

68) The enzyme enterokinase:

A) Functions in carbohydrate digestion.
B) Stimulates release of pancreatic secretions.
C) Activates protein-digesting enzymes.
D) Functions in lipid digestion.
E) Stimulates the release of bile.

C) Activates protein-digesting enzymes.

69) The human liver is composed of ____ lobe(s).

A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

D) 4

70) The fusion of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the:

A) Common pancreatic duct.
B) Hepatic portal vein.
C) bile canaliculus.
D) porta hepatis.
E) Common bile duct.

E) Common bile duct.

71) In the center of a liver lobule there is a:

A Sinusoid.
B) Hepatic duct.
C) portal vein.
D) central vein.
E) Portal area.

D) central vein.

72) The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of:

A) Pancreatic acini.
B) Pancreatic lobules.
C) Pancreatic crypts.
D) Islets of Langerhans.
E) Triads.

A) Pancreatic acini.

73) Each of the following is a function of the liver, except:

A) Synthesis and secretion of bile.
B) Synthesis of plasma proteins.
C) Antibody production.
D) Storage of glycogen and lipid reserves.
E) Inactivation of toxins.

C) Antibody production.

74) The basic functional unit of the liver is the:

A) Lobule.
B) Portal area.
C) hepatocyte.
D) bile canaliculus.
E) Kupffer cell.

A) Lobule.

75) ___ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates radiating outward from a central vein.

A) Hepatic ducts
B) Portal areas
C) Kupffer cells
D) Bile canaliculi
E) Hepatocytes

E) Hepatocytes

76) The Kupffer cells of the liver:

A) Are phagocytic.
B) Store glycogen.
C) Form urea.
D) Secrete bile.
E) all of the above

A) Are phagocytic.

77) The pancreas produces:

A) Nucleases.
B) Lipases and amylase.
C) Peptidases and proteinases.
D) all of the above
E) A and C only

D) all of the above

78) The pancreas produces ______ digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes.

A) protein
B) carbohydrate
C) nucleic acid
D) sugar
E) lipid

A) protein

79) The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the:

A) Ligamentum teres.
B) Lesser omentum.
C) Greater omentum.
D) Falciform ligament.
E) Hepatic ligament.

D) Falciform ligament.

80) Bile is stored in the:

A) Liver.
B) Duodenum.
C) Gallbladder.
D) Pancreas.
E) Appendix.

C) Gallbladder.

81) During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,

A) There is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach.

B) The intestinal reflex inhibits gastric emptying.

C) Secretin inhibits parietal and chief cells.

D) Production of gastric juice slows down.

E) The stomach responds to distention.

A) There is an increased flow of action potentials along the vagus nerve to the stomach.

82) The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the:

A) Entry of chyme into the small intestine.

B) Release of cholecystokinin and secretin by the small intestine.

C) Entry of chyme into the large intestine.

D) Sight, thought, or smell of food.

E) Entry of food into the stomach.

E) Entry of food into the stomach.

83) All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, except that it:

A) Begins when chyme enters the small intestine.

B) Involves both neural and endocrine reflexes.

C) Functions to control the rate of gastric emptying.

D) Ends when fat enters the small intestine.

E) Helps ensure that the functions of the small intestine proceed with relative efficiency.

D) Ends when fat enters the small intestine.

84) All of the following are true of the enterogastric reflex, except that it:

A) Is triggered by distention of the stomach.
B) Produces an increase in glandular secretion.
C) Aids in the defecation reflex.
D) Increases peristaltic activity all along the digestive tract.
E) Aids in emptying the duodenum.

C) Aids in the defecation reflex.

85) The gastroileal reflex:

A) Makes room for more intestinal contents by moving some chyme to the colon.

B) Promotes gastric secretion.

C) Is a solely endocrine reflex.

D) Decreases peristaltic activity.

E) Is responsible for emptying the duodenum.

A) Makes room for more intestinal contents by moving some chyme to the colon.

86) Digested materials move across the intestinal wall by all of the following, except:

A) active transport.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) diffusion.
D) Osmosis.
E) Cotransport.

D) Osmosis.

87) Functions of the large intestine include:

A) Chemical digestion of chyme.
B) Resorption of water and compaction of feces.
C) Primarily absorb the products of digestion.
D) Temporary food storage.
E) both A and C

B) Resorption of water and compaction of feces.

88) At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the:

A) Descending colon.
B) Ascending colon.
C) Rectum.
D) Sigmoid colon.
E) Transverse colon.

E) Transverse colon.

89) Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the:

A) Rectal column.
B) Sigmoid colon.
C) Rectum.
D) Anal canal.
E) Anus.

C) Rectum.

90) Haustra are

A) External pouches of the colon.
B) The source of hormones produced by the colon.
C) Glands in the large intestine that secrete enzymes.
D) Feces stored in the rectum.
E) Ridges in the mucosa of the colon.

A) External pouches of the colon.

91) The taenia coli are

A) Polyps that obstruct the sigmoid colon.

B) Ridges in the mucosa of the colon.

C) Three longitudinal bands of muscle located beneath the serosa of the colon.

D) External pouches of the colon.

E) Tumors normally found in the ascending colon.

C) Three longitudinal bands of muscle located beneath the serosa of the colon.

92) The saclike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the

A) Haustra.
B) Sigmoid colon.
C) Appendix.
D) Cecum.
E) Rectum.

D) Cecum.

93) A small, fingerlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the Cecum is the:

A) Gallbladder.
B) Pancreas.
C) Appendix.
D) Ileum.
E) Haustra.

C) Appendix.

94) Movements unique to the large intestine are ________ movements.

A) peristaltic
B) churning
C) mass
D) pendular
E) segmentation

C) mass

95) The enzyme alpha amylase helps digest:

A) Complex carbohydrates.
B) Nucleic acids.
C) lipids.
D) proteins.
E) simple sugars.

A) Complex carbohydrates.

96) An enzyme that will digest proteins into polypeptides is:

A) Maltase.
B) Amylase.
C) Nuclease.
D) Lipase.
E) Trypsin.

E) Trypsin.

97) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the:

A) Esophagus.
B) Mouth.
C) Ileum.
D) Stomach.
E) Duodenum.

B) Mouth.

98) Most products of fat digestion are absorbed by:

A) The interstitial fluid.
B) Veins.
C) Lymphatic vessels.
D) Capillaries.
E) The arterioles.

C) Lymphatic vessels.

99) The "muscular tube" of the digestive system can also be referred to as the

A) GI tract.
B) Esophagus.
C) Alimentary canal.
D) both A and C
E) all of the above

D) both A and C

100) The ________ supports all but 25 cm of the small intestine and provides stability.

A) mesentery proper
B) diaphragm
C) falciform ligament
D) lesser omentum
E) greater omentum

A) mesentery proper

101) This organ is responsible for primary water absorption.

A) stomach
B) small intestine
C) esophagus
D) anus
E) large intestine

E) large intestine

102) Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?

A) falciform ligament
B) lesser omentum
C) diaphragm
D) greater omentum
E) mesentery proper

D) greater omentum

103) Which of the following is a role of the digestive tract lining?

A) digests swallowed bacteria
B) protects from abrasions
C) safeguards nearby tissue
D) protects from digestive acids
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

104) The ________ chemically breaks down materials.

A) esophagus
B) stomach
C) anus
D) large intestine

B) stomach

105) Which layer of the digestive tract has a dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?

A) muscularis mucosae
B) lamina propria
C) submucosa
D) digestive epithelium
E) mucosa

C) submucosa

106) The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity:

A) Prevents irritation.
B) Secretes peritoneal fluid.
C) Decreases friction.
D) Lubricates the cavity.
E) all of the above

E) all of the above

107) Which of the following is responsible for stabilizing the liver?

A) mesentery proper
B) falciform ligament
C) greater omentum
D) diaphragm
E) lesser omentum

B) falciform ligament

108) The salivary gland produces ________ liters of saliva each day.

A) 1.0
B) 1.3
C) 1.7
D) 2.0
E) 2.3

B) 1.3

109) Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the digestive system each day.

A) 7
B) 10
C) 2
D) 1
E) 5

A) 7

110) Identify the salivary gland that secretes a mixture of buffers, glycoproteins, and salivary amylase.

A) submandibular
B) lingual
C) sublingual
D) parotid
E) mandibular

A) submandibular

111) The sheets of serous membrane that connect the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum are called:

A) The diaphragm.
B) The notochord.
C) Mesenteries.
D) Ascites.
E) Peritoneal sheets.

C) Mesenteries.

112) What stabilizes the position of the stomach and provides an access route for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?

A) falciform ligament
B) greater omentum
C) lesser omentum
D) diaphragm
E) mesentery proper

C) lesser omentum

113) All of the following contain goblet cells, except the:

A) large intestine
B) small intestine
C) esophagus
D) stomach
E) transverse colon

C) esophagus

114)Alteration in pH is an example of

A) Hormone stimulation.
B) Local stimulation.
C) Neural stimulation.
D) Muscular stimulation.
E) none of the above

B) Local stimulation.

115) ___ are also known as canines.

A) Incisors
B) Secondary teeth
C) Molars
D) Bicuspids
E) Cuspids

E) Cuspids

116) The oral mucosa has _______ epithelium.

A) single squamous
B) muscular
C) simple
D) stratified squamous
E) none of the above

D) stratified squamous

117) The ________ salivary gland can be found in the floor of the mouth covered by the mucous membrane.

A) sublingual
B) lingual
C) parotid
D) submandibular
E) mandibular

A) sublingual

118) Nitroglycerin is quickly absorbed via the ________ during a period of angina.

A) bloodstream
B) gluteus maximus
C) stomach
D) oral cavity
E) deltoid muscle

D) oral cavity

119) Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?

A) lingual
B) submandibular
C) mandibular
D) parotid
E) sublingual

D) parotid

120) Functions of teeth include:

A) Chewing.
B) Circulating food.
C) Mastication.
D) all of the above

D) all of the above

121) ______ Crush, mash, and grind food when it enters the mouth.

A) Bicuspids
B) Secondary teeth
C) Cuspids
D) Incisors

A) Bicuspids

122) The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the:

A) Large intestine.
B) Colon.
C) Stomach.
D) Small intestine.
E) Cecum.

D) Small intestine.

123) The hormone that stimulates the secretion of the stomach and contraction of the stomach walls is:

A) Cholecystokinin.
B) Enterokinase.
C) Secretin.
D) Gastrin.
E) CCK.

D) Gastrin.

124) The essential metabolic or synthetic service provided by the liver is
A) Hematological regulation.
B) Bile production.
C) Metabolic regulation.
D) A, B, and C
E) none of the above

D) A, B, and C

125) If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual:

A) Cannot control movements of the tongue.
B) Has difficulty tasting food.
C) Cannot swallow properly.
D) Cannot eat or speak normally.
E) Can do all of these with no difficulty.

D) Cannot eat or speak normally.

126) Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from:

A) Sympathetic stimulation.
B) Hunger.
C) Hormonal stimulation.
D) Parasympathetic stimulation.
E) Myenteric reflexes.

D) Parasympathetic stimulation.

127) The production of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by:

A) The central nervous system.
B) Digestive tract hormones.
C) Short reflexes coordinated in the stomach wall.
D) A, B, and C
E) none of the above

D) A, B, and C

128) As individuals age,

A) There is decreased risk of colon cancer.

B) There is very little change in the function of their digestive tract.

C) They become more prone to diarrhea.

D) Smooth muscle tone in the intestine decreases.

E) They become less likely to develop ulcers.

D) Smooth muscle tone in the intestine decreases.

129) Decreased levels of bile salts in the bile would interfere with digestion of:

A) complex carbohydrates.
B) protein.
C) Fat.
D) Disaccharides.
E) Vitamins.

C) Fat.

130) A molecule that blocks the activity of myosin light chain kinase would:

A) Increase membrane permeability to calcium ions.

B) Increase the contractility of smooth muscle in the intestine.

C) Rapidly deplete intracellular stores of ATP.

D) Interfere with smooth muscle contraction.

E) stimulate mass movements of the large intestine

D) Interfere with smooth muscle contraction.

131) A molecule that blocks the action of pacesetter cells would:

A) Decrease gastric secretion.
B) Increase gastric secretion.
C) Increase intestinal motility.
D) Not interfere with either intestinal motility or gastric secretion.
E) Decrease intestinal motility.

E) Decrease intestinal motility.

132) Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in:

A) Moving the tongue.
B) Mastication.
C) Esophageal peristalsis.
D) Swallowing.
E) Opening the cardiac sphincter.

D) Swallowing.

133) All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it:
A) Secretes bile for fat digestion.
B) Is constantly being replaced.
C) Is composed of simple columnar epithelium.
D) Is covered by thick, viscous mucus.
E) Contains gastric pits.

A) Secretes bile for fat digestion

134) Which is greater?

A) the pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal

B) the pH of the blood in gastric veins following a 24-hour fast

C) Neither is greater.

A) the pH of the blood in gastric veins during digestion of a large meal

135) Enterogastric reflexes:

A) Are solely neural.
B) Stimulate gastric motility.
C) Are triggered when the pH of chyme is too low.
D) Increase gastric secretion.
E) none of the above

C) Are triggered when the pH of chyme is too low. (p 972b)

136) A blockage of the opening in the duodenal papilla would do all of the following, except:

A) Decrease protein digestion.
B) Decrease carbohydrate digestion.
C) Increase emulsification of fats.
D) Interfere with neutralization of gastric chyme.
E) Impair fat digestion.

C) Increase emulsification of fats.

137) In response to the arrival of acid chyme in the duodenum, the:

A) Blood levels of secretin rise.
B) Blood levels of gastrin rise.
C) Blood levels of enterocrinin fall.
D) Blood levels of cholecystokinin fall.
E) both C and D

A) Blood levels of secretin rise.

138) A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would:

A) Impair the lubricating properties of saliva.

B) Result in the production of more viscous saliva.

C) Eliminate the sense of taste.

D) Interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.

E) both B and C

D) Interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.

139) In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid:

A) Rich in bicarbonate.
B) That contains only proteinases.
C) That contains only amylase.
D) Rich in bile.
E) Rich in enzymes.

A) Rich in bicarbonate.

140) In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid:

A) Rich in bicarbonate.
B) That contains only amylase.
C) Rich in bile.
D) That contains only proteinases.
E) Rich in enzymes.

E) Rich in enzymes.

141) Digestion of a carbohydrate results in large amounts of the monosaccharides glucose and galactose. This carbohydrate was probably:

A) Cellulose.
B) Maltose.
C) Sucrose.
D) Glycogen.
E) Lactose.

C) Sucrose.

142) Damage to motor fibers in which cranial nerve would not possibly interfere with the deglutition reflex?

A) X
B) IX
C) XI
D) V
E) XII

C) XI

143) The stomach is able to distend a great deal as it receives food because of all of the following, except that

A) There is a great deal of loose tissue in the form of rugae.

B) Increased sympathetic stimulation during filling of the stomach decreases the tonus of the gastric smooth muscle.

C) The hormone gastrin aids in the relaxation of stomach smooth muscle.

D) The smooth muscle of the stomach is very elastic.

E) The mucosa of the stomach is very elastic.

C) The hormone gastrin aids in the relaxation of stomach smooth muscle.

144) A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in:

A) A higher pH during gastric digestion.

B) Increased protein digestion in the stomach.

C) A lower pH during gastric digestion.

D) Decreased production of pepsinogen by chief cells.

E) Decreased gastrin production.

A) A higher pH during gastric digestion.

145) A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect:

A) The composition of pancreatic secretions.
B) The level of intestinal gastrin.
C) Secretions of the duodenal glands.
D) The amount of bile produced by the liver.
E) both C and D

A) The composition of pancreatic secretions.

146) An obstruction of the cystic duct would result in:

A) Pancreatitis.
B) Inability to digest protein.
C) Jaundice.
D) An inability to absorb water-soluble vitamins.
E) Increased sugar in the chyme.

C) Jaundice.

147) If the pancreatic duct were obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of

A) Bilirubin.
B) Cholecystokinin.
C) Secretin.
D) Amylase.
E) Gastrin.

D) Amylase.

148) Mary has a disease that causes a large portion of her gastric mucosa to atrophy. This results in significantly less secretion by the gastric glands. As a result of this condition you would expect Mary to have

A) Diarrhea.
B) pernicieuses anemia.
C) protein malnutrition.
D) Dehydration.
E) Obstructive bowel disease.

B) pernicieuses anemia.

149) Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?

A) elevated levels of blood glucose
B) overproduction of blood plasma albumin
C) impaired digestion of protein
D) jaundice
E) blood in the feces

D) jaundice

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