US History Era 3: Late Colonial Era

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Based on SparkNotes Study Cards. Improved for Reznick's students.

First Great Awakening

(1) period of religious fervor during the 1730s & 1740s, partly a reaction to the rise of skepticism/rationalism and the Enlightenment; (2) Protestant "new light" ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing Calvinist messages & urging a personal understanding of truth

French and Indian War

(1) conflict (1754-1763) that mirrored the Seven Years War in Europe (1756-1763) in which English colonists, soldiers, & their Native American allies fought the French & their Native American allies for dominance in North America (2) England's eventual victory drove the French from N. America & gave its ally Spain much of the far west

Salem Witch Trials

1692 panic in __, Massachusetts, in which more than 100 people were tried as witches, and 19 women and one man were executed for witchcraft; Puritan minister Cotton Mather eventually helped stop the trials and executions

Navigation Acts

a series of mercantilist laws (1651-1673) that attempted to regulate colonial trade; the laws required goods to travel aboard only British ships, provided subsidies for the production of certain raw goods in the colonies, and banned the colonists from competing with the English in large-scale manufacturing; the last of these laws forbade trade with any nation other than England

Treaty of Paris (1763)

treaty that ended the Seven Years War in Europe (& the Fr & Indian War in N. America); Britain acquired all of Canada and almost all of the modern US east of the Mississippi River

Triangular trade

the trade system that linked England's capital and manufactures with sugar/rum from the West Indies, foodstuffs and other raw materials in N. America, and slaves from Africa

Albany Plan

(1) Benjamin Franklin's 1754 proposal to a gathering of colonial delegates in ___, NY that the colonies unify to face the French and Indian threats; (2) the delegates at the meeting approved the plan, but the colonies they represented later rejected it for fear of losing their autonomy; the Crown also rejected the plan, too, as George II was wary of too much intercolonial cooperation

James Oglethorpe

British general and philanthropist who in 1733 founded Georgia, the last of the 13 Colonies; his goal was a kind of social experiment--a place where England's "worthy poor" (unlucky rather than lazy debtors) could thrive and make a living; his colony was also to be a buffer between the Carolina colonies and Spanish Florida; his attempt to ban slavery and alcohol were denounced and his colonial vision collapsed when slave owners flooded into the colony

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