Muscular atrophy involves a decrease in muscle cell:
During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, referred to as:
In response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells will:
increase in size.
A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. The type of cellular adaptation is called:
The mammary glands enlarge during pregnancy primarily as a consequence of:
A 55-year-old male is diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer secondary to hepatitis C. If the cancerous region of the liver were removed, the remaining cells would undergo:
A 40-year-old female is undergoing treatment for cervical cancer. Which of the following cellular changes is most likely to be associated with her cancer?
A 75-year-old male presents with chest pain with exertion. He was previously diagnosed with arteriosclerosis. The chest pain is most likely due to hypoxic injury secondary to:
Progressive cell injury that causes cell death with severe cell swelling and breakdown of organelles is referred to as:
Cellular injury can be caused by:
lead, carbon monoxide, and ethanol.
Sodium and water accumulation in an injured cell are a direct result of:
decreased ATP production.
The early dilation (swelling) of the cell's endoplasmic reticulum results in:
reduced protein synthesis.
A 52-year-old male suffered a myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerosis and ischemia. Once oxygen returned to the damaged heart, reperfusion injury occurred as a result of:
free radical formation.
A family presents to their physician complaining of headache, nausea, weakness, and vomiting. Which of the following would be the most likely explanation for these symptoms?
Carbon monoxide poisoning
A 50-year-old male sustained a closed head injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident. CT scan revealed a collection of blood between the inner surface of the dura mater and the surface of the brain. Which of the following describes the injury?
A 20-year-old male presents to the ER with a jagged sharp-force injury that is longer than it is deep. Which of the following best describes this injury?
A 30-year-old female presents with a gunshot wound to the head. The wound has seared edges and a deep penetration of smoke and gunpowder fragments. This wound could be characterized as a(n):
contact range entrance wound.
A 15-year-old female presents to the ER following a physical assault. She has internal damage to the neck with deep bruising. X-ray reveals fracture of hyoid bone and tracheal and cricoid cartilage. Which of the following most likely caused her injuries?
A 55-year-old male has swelling of the feet secondary to hypoxia. Which of the following aided in development of swelling?
Na+ movement into the cell
A 60-year-old male alcoholic is suffering from cirrhosis and liver failure. Liver biopsy revealed a yellow, greenish fatty liver. Which of the following could have contributed to this condition?
Increased conversion of fatty acids to triglycerides
A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Biopsy of the tumor reveals Russell bodies, and laboratory testing reveals kidney dysfunction. Accumulation of which of the following is associated with these symptoms?
A newborn male is diagnosed with albinism based on skin, eye, and hair appearance. Which of the following is associated with these features?
Inability to convert tyrosine to DOPA
A 23-year-old male develops a "black" eye following a fight. This bruising is due to an accumulation of:
Which of the following is an effect of excess circulating Ca2+?
Activation of proteases
Liquefactive necrosis occurs in the brain because:
it is rich in hydrolytic enzymes and lipids.
A woman decided to poison her middle-aged husband with mercuric chloride. Following ingestion of the poison, his kidney function was impaired and his heart began to fail. Which of the following was the most likely cause?
A group of prison inmates developed tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues were soft and granular like clumped cheese. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A 50-year-old female became infected with Clostridium bacteria and died a week later. Examination of her red blood cells revealed lysis of membranes and cause of death was ruled as shock. Which of the following was the most likely cause of her death?
Apoptosis is a condition in which cells program themselves to:
A 50-year-old male IV drug user is diagnosed with hepatitis C. Examination of the liver reveals cell death secondary to:
In distinguishing aging from diseases:
it is difficult to tell the difference because both processes are believed to result from cell injury.
The theory of aging proposing that aging is the result of DNA damage, inefficiency of repair, or loss of the integrity of DNA synthesis is referred to as the:
somatic mutation hypothesis.
Muscle stiffening occurring within 6 to 14 hours after death is called: