If a person has innate resistance to a disease, the person has _____ immunity.
A 20-year-old male received a knife wound to the arm during an altercation. Which of the following types of immunity was compromised?
Which of the following is an example of biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms?
A 25-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of vaginal discharge of a white, viscous, and foul-smelling substance. She reports that she has been taking antibiotics for the past 6 months. Which of the following is the most likely reason for her discharge?
What is a purpose of the inflammatory process?
To prevent infection of the injured tissue
A child fell off the swing and scraped her knee. The injured area becomes red and painful. Which of the following would also occur?
Edema at injured site
The mast cell, a major activator of inflammation, initiates the inflammatory response through the process of:
A 13-year-old female fell on her knee while skating. The area became inflamed and sore to touch. Which of the following would result from activation of the plasma system secondary to her injury?
The directional movement of cells along a chemical gradient is termed:
A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?
The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:
A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes aspirin for relief. Which of the following effects will relieve the headache?
Decrease prostaglandin production
Leukotrienes differ from histamine in which of the following ways?
Time of release
A 25-year-old male is in a car accident and sustains a fracture to his left femur with extensive soft tissue injury. The pain associated with the injury is related to:
kinins and prostaglandins.
The classic pathway of the complement system is activated by:
The primary actions of the complement cascade include:
increased vascular permeability and vasodilation, chemotaxis, opsonization, and cell killing.
The end product of the clotting system is:
A 5-year-old male is diagnosed with a bacterial infection. Cultures of the bacteria revealed lipopolysaccharides on the bacterial cell surface. Which of the complement pathways would be activated in this case?
A 2-year-old female presents with difficulty breathing and an edematous appearance. Her mother reports that the condition is recurrent and seems to occur more often during stressful situations. The child is diagnosed with angioneurotic edema. Which of the following is deficient in this child?
C1 esterase inhibitor
Opsonins are molecules that:
A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with a large tapeworm. Which of the following cells would be produced in response to this worm?
A 65-year-old female is diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Which of the following cells would be produced in large quantities to eliminate the tumor cells?
Natural killer cells
The phagocyte's role begins when the inflammatory response causes it to stick avidly to capillary walls in a process called:
An infant develops a fever secondary to a bacterial infection. Which of the following most likely triggered the fever?
A 54-year-old male IV drug user is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Testing revealed that he is a candidate for treatment. Which of the following could be used to treat his condition?
A 35-year-old male is diagnosed with lobar pneumonia (lung infection). Which of the following exudates would be present in highest concentration at the site of this advanced inflammatory response?
During inflammation, the liver is stimulated to release plasma proteins, collectively known as:
acute phase reactants.
A 30-year-old female develops chronic inflammation after accidentally ingesting her cat's feces that was contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Which of the following would most likely also be present?
The cleanup of a lesion involving the dissolution of fibrin clots by fibrinolytic enzymes is a process called:
A 12-year-old male is fighting with another child when he receives a puncture wound from a pencil. The school nurse cleaned and bandaged the wound. After about 1 week, the wound would be in which phase of healing?
The macrophage secretion that stimulates procollagen synthesis and secretion is:
transforming growth factor-beta.
A patient with scurvy generally expresses impaired wound healing caused by a lack of:
A 30-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident. The glass from the shattered window cut his face and neck. The scar, however, was raised and extended beyond the original boundaries of the wound. This pattern of scarring is caused by:
impaired collagen synthesis.