Hypersensitivities, Infection, Immune Deficiencies

Created by sgraham5102 

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Hypersensitivity is best defined as:

an excessive or inappropriate response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen.

A 5-year-old female takes a hike through the woods during a school field trip. Upon returning home, she hugs her father and he later develops poison ivy. Which of the following immune reactions is he experiencing?

Cell-mediated

When the maternal immune system becomes sensitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, what type of immune reaction occurs?

Alloimmune

Seasonal allergic rhinitis is expressed through:

IgE-mediated reactions.

A patient presents with poison ivy on extremities, face, and buttocks. This disease is an example of:

delayed hypersensitivity.

A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:

anaphylaxis.

A 25-year-old female is suffering from hay fever. Which of the following would be an expected symptom?

Edema

Which of the following hypersensitivity reactions does not involve an antibody response?

Type IV

A 10-year-old male presents to his physician complaining of wheezing and difficulty breathing. History reveals that both the child's parents suffer from allergies. Which of the following terms would be used to classify the child?

Atopic

A 30-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of fatigue, excessive sweating, and increased appetite. Physical examination reveals protruding eyes, and laboratory testing reveals hyperthyroidism secondary to autoantibody production. This disorder falls into which of the following categories?

Type II hypersensitivity

An example of an immune-complex-mediated disease is:

serum sickness.

Several prisoners are experiencing symptoms of tuberculosis. A tuberculin reaction test was ordered. This test is an example of type _____ hypersensitivity.

IV

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an example of:

autoimmunity

What is the chance that two siblings share both HLA haplotypes, making them a good match for an organ transplant from one to the other?

25%

If a person has type O blood, she is likely to have high titers (levels) of anti-_____ antibodies.

A and B

A 15-year-old male suffers from severe hemorrhage following a motor vehicle accident. He is given a blood transfusion, but shortly afterward the red blood cells are destroyed by agglutination and lysis. Which of the following blood type-transfusion type matches would cause this?

A-AB

Which relationship benefits the organism but causes no harm to the host?

Commensalism

Endotoxins are produced by:

gram-negative bacteria.

A 5-year-old male becomes ill with a severe cough. Histologic examination reveals a bacterial infection and further laboratory testing reveals cell membrane damage and decreased protein synthesis. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this illness?

Exotoxin

A 50-year-old female experiences decreased blood pressure, decreased oxygen delivery, cardiovascular shock, and subsequent death. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

Gram-negative bacteria

Viruses:

replicate their genetic material inside host cells.

Varicella, the virus that causes chicken pox, replicates:

in the cytoplasm.

A 25-year-old female reports having unprotected sexual intercourse with several men. Blood tests reveal that she is positive for human papilloma virus. Which of the following may occur because of the infection?

Warts

Fungi causing deep or systemic infections:

are commonly opportunistic.

The hallmark symptom of most infectious diseases is:

fever.

Most viral vaccines contain:

attenuated viruses.

Most bacterial vaccines contain:

dead bacteria.

Bacteria become resistant to antimicrobials by:

mutation.

A common symptom of individuals with immunodeficiency is:

recurrent infections.

A 5-year-old male presents with low-set ears, a fish-shaped mouth, and involuntary rapid muscular contraction. Laboratory testing reveals decreased calcium levels. Which of the following diagnosis is most likely?

T lymphocyte deficiency

A 22-year-old prostitute was recently diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A decrease in which of the following cell types would be expected to accompany this virus?

CD4 T-helper

Which of the following is a characteristic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?

HIV is a retrovirus

A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with HIV. Which of the following treatments would be most effective?

Highly active antiretroviral therapy

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