A patient has a tissue growth that was diagnosed as cancer. Which of the following growth types could it be?
Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin are referred to as:
cancer in situ.
A 25-year-old male develops a tumor of the breast glandular tissue. This type of tumor is classified as a(n):
A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer. Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. This cancer would be stage:
A 52-year-old male with hepatitis C recently developed hepatic cancer. Which of the following markers should be increased?
Presence of telomere caps gives cancer cells:
A child develops retinoblastoma. Which of the following must have occurred?
Mutations in the rb gene occurred in both copies of the gene.
A 45-year-old female was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?
Human papilloma virus
Which of the following factors is necessary for local tumor spread?
Increased cellular motility
The most common route of metastasis is through the:
A 50-year-old female develops skin cancer on her head and neck following years of sunbathing. Which of the following cancers is the most likely?
Basal cell carcinoma
Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?
Physical activity was shown to reduce the risk of which of the following types of cancer?
A 65-year-old male was recently diagnosed with cancer. He is retired from construction work. Which of the following cancers is he likely to develop secondary to occupational hazards?
Indoor pollution is considered worse than outdoor pollution because of cigarette smoke and:
A water test recently revealed arsenic levels above 200 mg/L. Which of the following cancers would be most likely to develop in those who consistently drank the water?
Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in people with cancer cause:
a diabetes-like syndrome.
Individuals with cancer are often at risk for infections because of:
Which of the following is the most significant cause of complications and death in cancer patients?
A 75-year-old male was recently diagnosed with prostate cancer. The cancer had not metastasized upon diagnosis. Which of the following factors would most predispose this patient to infection?
To be curative, chemotherapy must eradicate:
enough cancer cells so that the body's own defenses can kill any remaining cells.
Biologic response modifiers are a form of:
A 50-year-old male discovers a mass growing in his mouth. A biopsy reveals that the mass is benign. Which of the following treatments would most likely be recommended?
Gastrointestinal alterations, such as nausea and mucosal erosions, are common side effects of chemotherapy treatment because:
chemotherapy agents target rapidly dividing cells in the oral and intestinal linings.
A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer and put on chemotherapy treatment. Which of the following would help to relieve some of the side effects?
Red cell transfusion