the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways
central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
acting according to certain accepted standards
measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self awareness and self-restraint occurring in a group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
decision making by a group (especially in a manner that discourages creativity or individual responsibility)
an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts
a generalized belief about a group of people
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing
"fake subjects" that look & behave like real subjects in study.
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
diffusion of responsibility
reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect
a rule that states that we should repay others for what they have given us
low ball technique
persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price, and then mentions all of the "add-on" costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product