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Stuff for the quiz on 4/26

Hydrolysis

Using h2o to break down large molecules into monomers

Gastrointestinal track

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum

Mechanical digestion

Breaking down food using muscular movements

Chemical digestion

Breaking down food using chemicals

Mouth

Beginning of mechanical and chemical digestion

Mechanical

Type of digestion teeth do

Enamel

Outer layer of tooth

Dentin

Middle layer of tooth

Pulp cavity

Inside of tooth; contains blood vessels and nerves

Maxilla and mandible

Muscles the teeth are anchered in

Paratoid gland

Main Saliva gland near the ear

Submandibular gland

Saliva gland beneath mandible

Sublingual gland

Saliva gland beneath tongue

Nervous

Which system regulates saliva glands?

Mucus

Fluid that moistens and lubricates food; protects stomach lining

Lysozyme

Enzyme which attacks bacteria cell walls

Amylase

Enzyme which breaks down starch to disaccharide maltose

Bolus

Ball of food formed in mouth after chewing and partial digestion

Epiglottis

Cartilage flap which blocks the glottis(opening to trachea)

Esophagus

Tube from pharynx to stomach;about 25cm long

Peristalsis

Circular smooth muscles contract in wave-like motion forcing food through system

Cardiac Sphincter

Muscle ring which makes a valve allowing the blouse to enter the stomach

Mechanical

Type of digestion caused by churning-motion of stomach

Hydrochloric acid (HCI)

Gastric fluid that helps with chemical digestion

Pepsinogen

Gastric enzyme which breaks down protein to smaller polypeptide chains; works best in an acidic environment

Chyme

Material that leaves stomach (1-2 hours to digest)

Pyloric Sphincter

Sphincter muscle between stomach and small intestine

Duodenum

First part of Small Intestine; 4-5' long; most digests occurs here

Jejunum

Second part of Small Intestine; 9' long; most absorption of nutrients occurs here

Ileum

Third part of Small Intestine; 9' long; remaining nutrients absorbed here

Duodenum

enzymes produced in the lining of this part of small intestine

Peptidases

Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); Continue digestion of polypeptides -> dipeptides -> amino acids

Maltase

Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); maltose -> 2 glucose

Lactase

Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); lactose -> glucose & galactose

Sucrase

Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); sucrose -> glucose & fructose

Pancreas & liver

Produce enzymes but are not part of GI track

Villus

Finger like projections on wall which contain smaller microvilli to increase the surface area for food absorption (wrinkles)

Glycerol & fatty acids

All nutrients except for these are absorbed into blood

Lacteal

Lymph vessel in each villus that absorbs fatty acids and glycerol and move them through the lymph system and return them too the blood stream near the clavicle

Ileocecal

Opening between small and large intestines

Appendix

Organ that sticks out of large intestine and has no apparent use in humans; other animals store cellulose and indigestible substances here

Rectum

Last section of colon, stores feces until eliminated

Anus

Opening at base of rectum

Water, indigestible substances, & cellulose

Matter that enters the large intestine

Colon

Where water and vitamins produced by bacteria is absorbed

Water

75% of feces

Diarrhea

Too much water with fecal matter

Constipation

Not enough water with fecal matter

Flatulence

Combination of gasses that travel from stomach to anus

Pancreas

Organ located behind the stomach that isn't part of the GI track but important to the digestive system, releases fluid into duodenum

Liver

Organ located above the stomach that isn't part of the GI track but important to the digestive system

Pancreas

Produces hormones to regulate blood sugar levels, enzymes for breaking down carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and makes sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate

Fluid produced by pancreas to neutralize stomach acid so enzymes can work

Bile

Fluid produced by liver and stored on gall bladder, emulsifiers fats (increases surface area to make digestion by lipase more efficient)

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.

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