Psychology Chapter 14 and 15

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Abnormal behavior

Refers to action, thoughts, and feelings that are distressing or harmful.

Supernatural Theories (historical views)

Abnormal behavior is caused by evil spirits.
(Treatments were given through prayer, exorcisms, fasting, drinking, concoctions).

Biological Theories (historical views)

Imbalance and diseases caused abnormal behavior.

Psychological Theories (historical views)

Abnormal behavior was caused by stress, anxiety, child experience, etc.

Biological and Psychological (contemporary views)

Abnormal behavior is believed to be caused by what two factors?

Biological factors (contemporary views)

Inherited predispositions, abnormal amounts of specific neurotransmitter substances in the brain, and tendencies to react to stress in an extreme way.

Psychological factors (contemporary views)

Stress, abnormal social leaning histories, and inadequate social support.

Continuity Hypothesis (contemporary views)

The view that abnormal behavior is just a more severe form of normal psychological problems.

Discontinuity Hypothesis (contemporary)

The view that abnormal behavior is fundamentally different from normal psychological problems.

Stigma

When people have a very negative view of people with psychological problems and tend to make them appear worse than they really are because of fear.

Dangerous and Untrustworthy

What do we view people with abnormal behavior as?

Consequences of Stigma

1.) It may make mental health problem worse.
2.) It may prevent people with mental health problems from seeking help.

Neuroses

Reality oriented but with high levels of anxiety. The individual can remain in touch with reality and still be thinking about the real world in real world kinds of ways.

Anxiety

ill defines or non-specific fear

Somatoform Disorders

Disorders in which the individual experiences the symptoms of physical health problems that have psychological rather than physical causes.

Somatization Disorder

Intensely and chronically uncomfortable psychological conditions that involve numerous symptoms of somatic (body) illness without physical cause. (Chronic and recurrent aches, pains, tiredness, and other symptoms of somatic illness, anxiety and depression, many are eventually the recipients of unnecessary surgery).

Hypochondriasis

A middle form of somatization disorder characterized by excessive concern about one's health. (Lives are dominated by their concern for health, overract with concern to minor coughs and pains, go unreasonable lengths to avoid germs and cancer-causing agents).

Conversion Disdorders

Somatoform disorder in which individuals experience serious somatic symptoms such as functional blindness, deafness, and paralysis.This becomes a neurotic disorder where immense amounts of anxiety are converted into dramatic physical symptoms. (Dispositions toward this disorder: people become socially naive, hyper emotional, and Internalizing immense conflict). Psychotherapy is the best treatment.

Somatoform Pain Disorders

somatoform disorders in which the individual experiences a relatively specific and chronic pain that has a psychological rather than a physical cause.Similar to conversion disorders except the primary symptom is pain that has no physical cause.

Neurasthenia

Obsess on general complaints rather than specific complaints.

Psychoses

Non-reality oriented, high levels of anxiety, breaks with reality, often find delusions and hallucinations.

Anxiety Disorders

Psychological disorders that involve excessive levels of negative emotions, such as nervousness, tension, worry, fright, and anxiety.

Phobia

An intense, irrational, often specific fear. The anxiety is focused on some object or situation that the individual will often go to great pains to avoid. They realize it is irrational but usually cannot control their fear.

Specific Phobia

A phobic fear one relatively specific thing. It is the most common phobia. It includes intense fears of heights, dogs, blood, hypordermic injections, and being closed spaces. (A fear of elevators of elevators might be highly disruptive for a person who works in a skyscraper, but it might not be for a vegetable farmer).

Social Phobia

A phobic fear of social interactions, particularly those with strangers and those in which the person might be viewed negatively. (Job interviews, public speaking, and first dates can be hard for people with this phobia).

Agoraphobia

An intense fear of leaving one's home or other familiar places. (Usually people who suffer this have a fear of leaving one's home or other familiar places. They can find even a trip to the mailbox challenging).

Fear

Anxiety or worry caused by a particular stimuli.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An uneasy sense of general tension and apprehension for no apparent reason that makes the individual highly uncomfortable because of its prolonged presence.

Panic Anxiety Disorder

A pattern of anxiety is which long periods of calm are broken by an intensely uncomfortable attack of anxiety.Respiration increases and suddenly rapid heartbeats can be felt pounding with such intensity the individual often feels that he or she is having a heart attack or is going crazy. (Healthy people can have a panic attack or two and it not be of great concern).

Smell related to traumatic event

Something as simple as what can lead to a panic attack?

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The condition caused by extremely stressful experiences in which the person later experiences anxiety and irritability; has upsetting memories, dreams, and realistic flashbacks of the experience; and tries to avoid anything that reminds his or her of the experience. (Prior to Vietnam War, there was no such thing as his. The term did not exist. The war scene birthed it).

People Diagnosed with PTSD meet these criteria.

1.) Recollections of the stressful event that intrude in their waking consciousness and fill their dreams with horror.
2.) Intense emotional and autonomic reactions to stimuli that remind them of the event.
3.) An avoidance of stimuli associated with the event.
4.) Feeling numbed to the ordinary emotions and pleasures of life.
5.) Difficulty sleeping, hyperarousal, irritability, and difficulty concentrating.

Who develops PTSD

People typically have a severity of stress, characteristics before the traumatic event, lack of social support, and the gender ex of the person.

Treatment for PTSD

To go back into that same arena as soon as possible and talk about and revisit what had happened.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

Disorders that involve obsessions (anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away) and/or compulsions (irresistible urges to engage in specific irrational behavior).This disorder occurs when it actually beings to paralyze the person. These people often want to do everything perfect, and use repetition alot.

Obsession

Preoccupation with a thought that bombards consciousness at very inconvenient times. (Cognitive component)

Compulsion

Behavioral response to an obsession. (behavioral component).

Dissociative Disorders

a category of conditions involving sudden cognitive changes, such as a sudden loss of memory or loss of one's identity.

Depersonalization

The perceptual experience of one's body or surroundings becoming distorted or unreal in some way. Individual feels that he has become distorted, knows that these feelings are not accurate.This usually occurs in young adults.B. This is generally not considered to be abnormal unless it is accompanied by other problems or is recurrent to the point of being uncomfortable. (Dissociative disorder).

Dissociative Amnesia

a dissociative disorder that involves a loss of memory and that has a psychological rather than a physical cause. Most often occurs after a period of intense stress and involves a loss of memory for all or part of the stressful experience itself.

Dissociative Fuge State

a period of "wandering" that involves a loss of memory and a change in identity. The loss of memory is so complete that the individual cannot remember his identity or previous life, individual travels to a new location, takes on a new personality that is usually more sociable and fun loving.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)

A dissociative disorder in which the individual appears to shift abruptly and repeatedly from one personality to another

Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)

1.) Is an extremely dramatic disorder
2.) Appears as if more than one individual is inhabiting the body, personalities are opposite from one another, generally one is more sensual and rebellious, personalities are not aware of each other.
3.) Victims are often over diagnosed, usually have experienced long-term physical and/or sexual abuse.
4.) People can be very witty, and bright.

Mood Disorders

Psychological disorders involving depression and/or abnormal elation.

Major Depression

an affective disorder characterized by episodes of deep unhappiness, loss of interest in life, and other symptoms. The results of certain biological and social forces that act detrimentally upon the person's nervous system function. The single most frequent general mental health disorder.

Characteristics of Major Depression

1.) Affects 10-20% of the population
2.)Will haunt 18 to 20% of the population before they die.
3.) Affects 15% of all adults
4.) Usually affects people whop live in cities.
5.) Affects middle-aged (35-50) years with surprising frequency.
6.) Doubled suicide rate among 20 year olds in past 10 years.
7.) Affects Christians as well as unbelievers.
8.) Deeply unhappy, finds little pleasure in life, holds a negative opinion of self and others, believes the future is bleak, see no reason to live, increased or decreased sleep, increased or decreased appetite, loss of interest in sex, loss of energy or excessive energy, difficulties concentrating and making decisions, far more likely to commit suicide.
9.) - Adversely/negatively change changes a person's feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.

Endogenous causes of Major Depression

1.) Change of life transitions
2.) Birth of a child
3.) Aging or senility
4.) Toxic effects of drugs
5.) Infections
6.) Glandular disorders
7.) Physical injuries
8.) Acute and chronic conditions
9.) Physical or mental fatigue

Reactive causes to Major Depression

1.) Reactive causes
2.) Death of a loved one
3.) General loses of all sorts
4.) Friendships, confidence in others, job statuses, lost opportunities
5.) Situational changes
6.) Retirement, divorce, displacement, loneliness

Sever Major Depression

the symptoms of depression become so severe that they verge on psychotic issues.
It is often paired with suicidal thoughts.

Postpartum Depression

after the birth of a child, the mother becomes depressed. This is usually a product of the change of hormones during the birth of a child.

Bipolar Disorder

A condition in which the individual experiences periods of mania that alternate irregularly with periods of severe depression.

Mania

A disturbance of mood in which the individual experiences a euphoria without cause that is characterized by unrealistic optimism and heightened sensory pleasure; the behavioral expression of euphoria.

Euphoria

A feeling of ecstasy.

Characteristics of Bipolar Disorder

1.) - Is usually damaging to the individual and others, will experience a remarkable high in which one's self-esteem is very high, thoughts race, little sleep is needed, and usually financially damaging schemes, buying schemes, divorce, sexual promiscuity, mania usually returns in multiples episodes.
2.) The causes are unknown, but it appears to be heritable.

Medication (omega 3 fatty acids)

What is the treatment for Bipolar disorder?

Schizophrenia

A psychological disorder involving cognitive disturbance (delusions and hallucinations), disorganization, and reduced enjoyment and interests.

Characteristics of Schizophrenia

1.) The most frequent psychotic mental disorder.
2.) It affects about 1 percent of the population.
3.) Usually expressed between ages 18-25
4.) Is preceded by a long period of gradual decline in social functions and intellectual performance, symptoms can either come gradually or in a quick "break."
5.) Includes delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, emotions, behavior, and reduced enjoyment/interest.

Paranoid Schizophrenia

A subtype of schizophrenia in which the individual holds delusions or persecution and grandeur that seriously distort reality. People have an irrational fear that multitudes of people are out to get you.

Characteristics of Paranoid Schizophrenia

1.) Accompanied by delusions, believes others are "put to get me," have hallucinations, may hear see, or feel things that are not there, is suspicious of everyone.

2.) Prognosis: minimal to none because patient doesn't trust therapists.

3.) If treatment was at all possible, cognitive therapy would be used.

Disorganized Schizophrenia

A subtype of schizophrenia characterized by shallow silliness, extreme social withdrawal, and fragmented delusions and hallucinations.

Characteristics of Disorganized Schizophrenia

1.) - There are delusions and hallucinations, speech and cognitive processes are so disorganized and fragmented that the delusions and hallucinations have little meaning, extreme withdrawal from normal human contact, a shallow silliness of emotion, act in childlike ways, react inappropriately, sometimes ignore personal hygiene.

2.) Prognosis: very low

3.) Treatment would be psychotherapy.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

A subtypes of schizophrenia in which the individual spends long periods in an inactive, statue like state.

Characteristics of Catatonic Schizophrenia

1.) Will often stand still in a single pose for several hours.
2.) They are focusing internally instead of externally.
3.) Sometimes experience hallucinations and delusions, long periods of catatonic stupor, will passively let themselves be place in any posture and maintain it, cease to talk, appears not to hear what is spoken to him, may no longer eat without being fed, stupor may be broken by periods of agitation, may pace and fidget nervously or angrily attack others.
4.) Prognosis: good to excellent
5.) Treatment would be psychotherapy

Delusional Disorder

A nonschizophrenic disorder characterized by delusions of grandeur and persecution that are more logical than those of paranoid schizophrenics in the absence of hallucinations. (These are less illogical and are not accompanied by hallucinations, delusions are more subtle believable).

Delusions are false beliefs that distort reality.
Hallucinations are false perceptual experiences that distort reality.

What is the difference between hallucinations and delusions?

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Defined by serious problems sustaining attention and completing tasks, or by high levels of motor activity and impulsivity, or both. The diagnosis is made only if these symptoms result in serious impairment in functioning in two or more areas of life.

Inattention symptoms of ADHD

1.) Cannot sustain attention
2.) Often fails to attend to details or makes careless mistakes.
3.) Highly distractible
4.) Does not follow through and complete tasks.
5.) Disorganized
6.) Often loses pencils, paper, and assignments at school or work.
7.) Often does not seem to listen when being spoken to.
8.) Dislikes or avoids tasks that require sustained attention.
9.) Often forgetful

Hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms of ADHD

1.) Often fidgets and squirms when seated.
2.) Often leaves seat when should remain seated.
3.) Often runs or climbs excessively.
4.) Often has difficulty quietly engaging in play or leisure activates.
5.) Is often "on the go" or acts like he or she is "driven by a motor."
6.) Often talks excessively.
7.) Often blurts out answer before the question has been completed.
8.) Often has difficulty awaiting his turn.
9.) Often interrupts or intrudes on others.

Personality Disorders

Psychological disorder that are believed to result from personalities that developed improperly during childhood; bizarre behavior, but relatively little anxiety that is acknowledged by the victim.
1.) Disorder begins early in life.
2.) They are very difficult to treat.
3.) Tend to be long-lasting, but not always chronic.
4.) They are disturbing to the person or to others.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

A personality disorder characterized by blunted emotions, lack of interest in social relationships, and withdrawal into a solitary existence.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder characterized by smooth social skills and a lock of guilt about violating social rules and laws and taking advantage of others.

Schizotypal personality disorder

Few friendships, suspiciousness, strange ideas, such as belief that he or his mind can be read by others and that messages are being received in strange ways.

Paranoid personality disorder

High degrees of suspiciousness and mistrust of others, extreme irritability and sensitivity, coldness and lack of tender feelings.

Hisrionic personality disorder

Self-centered, frequently seeking to be the center of attention, manipulating others through exaggerated expressions of emotions and difficulties, superficially charming and seductive but lacking genuine concern for others, frequent angry outbursts.

Narcissistic personality disorder

Unrealistic sense of self-importance, preoccupied with fantasies of future success, requires constant attention and praise, reacts very negatively to criticism or is indifferent to criticism, exploits others, feels entitled to special consideration, lack of genuine concern for others.

Borderline personality disorder

Impulsive and unpredictable, unstable personal relationships, angry, almost constantly needs to be with others, lack of clear identity, feelings of emptiness.

Avoidant personality disorder

Extremely shyness or social withdrawal in spite of a desire for friendships, extremely sensitive to rejection, very low self-esteem.

Dependent personality disorder

Passive dependence on others for support and decisions; has low self-esteem, and puts needs of others before self.

Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder

Perfectionistic, dominating, poor ability to express affection, excessive devotion to work, indecisive when faced with major decisions.

Psychoanalysis- A method of psychotherapy developed by Freud based on his belief that the root of all psychological problems is unconscious conflicts among the id, the ego, and the superego.

Psychoanalytic psychotherapy believes that emotional problems are the result of what?

Free Association

A tool used by Freud in which the patient is encouraged to talk about whatever comes to mind, allowing the contents of the unconscious mind to slip past the censorship of the ego.

Dream Interpretation

A method developed by Freud in which the symbols of the manifest content of dreams that are recalled by the patient are interpreted to reveal their latent content.

Interpretation of Resistance

A form of patient opposition to the process of psychoanalysis meaning a conflict in the patient that is so laden with anxiety that the patient avoids talking about it.

Interpretation of Transference

The phenomenon in psychoanalysis in which the patient comes to feel and act toward the therapist in ways that resemble how he or she feels and acts toward other significant adults.

Catharsis

The release of emotional energy related to unconscious conflicts. This is not exactly a technique of psychoanalysis, but rather a benefit.

Client-Centered Psychotherapy

Carl Rogers' approach to humanistic psychotherapy, in which the therapist create an atmosphere that encourages clients to discover feelings of which they are unaware. The emphasis is on the ability for the clients to help themselves rather the ability of the therapist to help the client.

Client-Centered Psychotherapy Characteristics

1.) B. The therapist's job is to create an atmosphere that is so emotionally safe for the clients that they will feel free to express to the therapist the feelings they have denied awareness.
2.) The therapist must be warm, genuinely be able to like the clients and unconditionally accept everything they thing, feel or do without criticism, must have empathy.

Reflection

A technique in which the therapist reflects the emotions of the client to help clients clarify their feelings.

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

Psychotherapy based on social learning theory in which the therapist helps the client unlearn abnormal ways of behaving, learn more adaptive ways of behaving, and change maladaptive cognition. Believes that people are abnormal because their environment taught them to be.

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

The therapist plays the role of a teacher. They act as someone who helps the client unlearn abnormal ways of behaving and learn more adaptive ways to take their place.

Techniques for Cognitive- Behavior Therapy

Graded Exposure - A behavior therapy technique in which a person with a phobia is first exposed to a stimulus that is mildly fear provoking. Once the client has mastered his anxiety in that situation, he is exposed to a graded series of more fearful situations.

Social skills training - The use of techniques of operant conditioning to teach social skills to person who lack them.

Role Playing- A therapeutic technique in which
the therapist and client act as if they were people in problematic situations.

Group Therapy

Psychotherapy conducted in groups, typically of four to eight clients at a time.

Group Therapy Characteristics

1.) One to two therapists work with four to eight clients at time.
2.) Is believed to offer therapeutic experiences that cannot be obtained in individual therapy, some of which are.
3.) Receive encouragement from other group members, learning that one is not alone in one's problems, learning from the advice offered by others, learning new ways to interact with others, the therapist plays the role of an interpreter.
4.) Therapist avoid becoming part of the interactions of the group members.

Family Therapy

An approach to psychotherapy that emphasizes an understanding of the roles of each of the members of the family system, usually conducted with all member of the family present.

Characteristics of Family Therapy

1.) It isn't possibly to understand adequately the psychological problems of an individual without knowing the role of that individual in the family system.
2.) Also, the client's problems may serve a function in the family system.
3.) Therapist attempts to solve the problems of all the family members by improving the functioning of the family system as a whole.
4.) To give the family members insights into the workings of the family systems in general and to correct any dysfunctions in their family.
5.) To increase the amount of warmth and intimacy among family members.
6.) To improve communication among family members.
7.) To help family members establish a reasonable set of rules for the regulation of the family.

Medical Therapies

Those therapies generally designed to correct a physical condition that is believed to be the cause of a psychological disorder. There are four different types of medical therapy.

Drug Therapy

A medical therapy that uses medications to treat abnormal behavior. These are most often used for treating abnormal behavior. Medications are designed to improve psychological functioning by influencing a specific neurotransmitter in the brain.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

A medical therapy that uses electrical current to induce controlled convulsive seizures that alleviate some types of mental disorders. Is used for treating severely depressed individuals.

Transcranial Therapy

This is similar to ECT, but it stimulates the brain without causing seizures. It is used for severely depressed individuals who have not responded to any other kind treatment.

Psychosurgery

A medical therapy that involves operating on the brain in an attempt to alleviate some types of mental disorders. It it used mainly for bi-polar people or those who have not responded to any other kind of treatment. It is still very controversial.

Cingulotomy

A type of psychosurgery for severe and otherwise untreatable obsessive-compulsive disorder; it involves surgical destruction of part of the cingulated cortex.

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