judged to be maladaptive
personally distressing to the individual
Cause of abnormal behavior is rooted deep within the unconscious mind, unresolved intra-psychic behavior.
Abnormal behavior is a result of environmental influence, from deviating from your true self
When thoughts and belief systems are disordered and faulty, one may easily begin to distrust others and explain events in very pessimistic ways.
abnormal behavior has at some point been rewarded or reinforced, and has now been learned
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders by the APA
classifies psychological disorders across 5 axes
major disorders like mood, eating, sleeping, substance-related disorders, and perceptual and cognitive disruptions
Criticisms of the DSM IV TR
Relies too heavily on the medical model
"Casts too wide a net"- too many disorders
Symptoms of some disorders overlap
Anxiety disorders activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause excessive worry and discomfort
intense, irrational fear of avoidance of stimuli or event
-specific phobias (claustrophobia)
-social phobias, fear of being publicly humiliated
when patients complain of physical symptoms without a known organic (biological) cause.
Conversion Disorder (SD)
Loss of physical ability (ex. sight) with no
Such a person is convinced his or her symptoms are real, but doesn't show a typical level of distress.
AKA Major depression
Intense sadness, change in eating and
sleeping activity, changes in energy level
and concentration, persists for more than
two weeks (lack of serotonin)
Bipolar Disorder (MD)
Alternating episodes of mania (euphoric
mood, reckless behavior, grandiosity,
and loss of contact with reality) and
major depressive episodes
psychotic disorder characterized by gross (large) disturbances of affect (expression of emotions), perception, movement, and thought or language.
theory suggests schizophrenics have an excess number of dopamine receptors in the brain which causes symtoms
Disturbances of thought, behavior and
emotion that don't fit into any other
pervasive expression of extreme, abnormal personality which interfere with normal social functioning
complete loss of identity, can be caused by severe stress, assumption of new identity (leave homes and go far away)
Dissociative identity Disorder
appearance of 2 or more distinct identities in one individual, IDs might not be aware of each other
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
Either can't concentrate or constant need to move and do something