Erikson's Stage Theory:
1. Trust vs. Mistrust( 1st year of life):
2. Autonomy vs. Shame (2nd-3rd year):
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3rd to 6th year
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6th year to puberty):
Erikson's Stage Theory: Trust vs. Mistrust ( 1st year of life): =
Babies have needs that are depended on adults
If basic needs are met = Optimistic and Trusting
Erikson's Stage Theory: Autonomy vs. Shame (2nd-3rd year) =
Child must take personal responsibility (feeding and etc)
If parent is not satisfied with child's efforts and constant parent- child conflict = Sense of personal shame and self-doubt may develop.
Erikson's Stage Theory: Initiative vs. Guilt (3rd to 6th year):
Child takes initiatives that may come in conflict with parent's rules
Parents need to support their children emerging independence while maintaining appropriate control
Erikson's Stage Theory: Industry vs. Inferiority (6th year to puberty):
The challenge to learn to functional socially extends to outside of parents
If children function effectively in realm where productivity is valued => Pride in accomplishment => Sense of competence
Erikson's Stage Theory: • Identity vs. Role confusion
o Adolescence (13-19 years)
Erikson's Stage Theory: • Intimacy vs. Isolation
o Young adulthood (20-40 years)
o To be intimate or not with other
Erikson's Stage Theory: • Generativity vs. Stagnation
o Middle adulthood (40-65 years)
o Acquire a genuine concern for the welfare of future generations
Erikson's Stage Theory:• Integrity vs. Despair
o Late adulthood (65 & older)
o Needs to find meaning in their lives
Piaget Stage Theory: Main
Children progress in their thinking through assimilation and accommodation
Piaget Stage Theory: Assimilation=
= Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them.
Piaget Stage Theory: Accommodation=
=Changing existing mental structure to explain new experiences.
Piaget Stage Theory: Stage 1: 0 months -2 years: Sensorimotor Period.
-Gradual appearance of symbolic thought:
-Coordination of sensory input and motor responses,
-Development of object permanence
Piaget Stage Theory: Development of object permanence =
= Child recognizes that objects continue to even when they are no longer visible.
Piaget Stage Theory: Stage 2: 2-7 years: Preoperational Period
Shortcomings in preoperational thought: Ex: Cannot solve conversational problems
=Awareness that physical quantities remain constant despite change in their shape or appearance (Piaget)
Piaget Stage Theory: Stage 2: 2-7 years: Preoperational Period: Due to flaws in preoperational thinking:
1) Centration = Tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
2) Irreversibility = Inability to envision reversing an action
Can't mentally "undo" something
3) Egocentrism = Thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
Animism = Belief that all things are living
Piaget Stage Theory: Stage 3:7-11 years: Concrete Operational
-Children can perform operations only on images of real objects and actual events
Piaget Stage Theory: Stage 3:7-11 years: Concrete Operational: Operations =
= Internal transformations, manipulation and reorganization of metal structure
Piaget Stage Theory: Stage 4:11years-older: Formal operation period
Children apply their operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects
Neo-Piaget Stage Theory:
• Older children can deal with more complex tasks
• Increase in formation processing forms the basis of cognitive development
• Children may show higher levels of development than others
• Cultures play a role in cognitive development
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory: Vygotsky and Piaget perceptive on cognitive is similar, Differences:
1. Cognitive development is fuelled by social interactions with parents and other s who provide valuable guidance
2. Culture exerts great influence over how cognitive growth influence unfolds
3. Language plays a crucial role in cog dev.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory:
Cognitive is more of an apprenticeship, than a journey of individual discovery; Cognitive development is due to:
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory: Zone of Proximal Development =
Development = is the gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he can achieve with guidance from skilled partners
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory: Scaffolding =
=Occurs when the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory: Private Speech
= Private talks that contribute to planning strategies, regulate their actions and accomplish their goals
Gradual reduction in the strength of response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly.
=Occurs if a stimulus event elicits an increase in the strength of a habituated response.
Critical period =
= A limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences.
Sensitive Period =
= An optimal period for acquisition but does not prevent acquisition at a later point
Six-Month Threshold =
=Children deprived of needs more than 6 months will have a big impact
Kohlberg's Stage Theory =