Comparitive gross anatomy of GIT systems in animals

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what is autoenzymic digestion?

carried out by enzymes in the GIT of animal

what is alloenzymic digestion?

carried out partly by gut microbres

what animals use autoenzymic digestion?

mammals and avian species

what animals use alloenzymic digestion?

foregut fermenters (ruminants/ non-ruminants)
hindgut fermenters

dental adaptations of carnivores

canines for tearing
molars for crushing bones

dental adaptations of omnivores

incisors and canines- piercing and tearing
molars- grinding

dental adaptations of non-ruminant herbivores

incisors for nipping
molars slightly angled, jaws move circularly

dental adaptations of ruminants

upper incisors absent (dental pad instead)
canines absent
lateral jaw movements
molars present for shredding and grinding fibre

what is prehension?

grasping and conveying feed to mouth

what are edentates?

relatively toothless animals e.g sloths, armadillos, anteater
tend to have long tongue
may have ridges and spines in mouth

components of the digestive system of ruminants

rumen (1st stomach)
reticulum (2nd stomach)
omasum (3rd stomach)
abomasum

what is the texture of the rumen?

towel like surface

what is the texture of the reticulum?

honey comb

what is the texture of the omasum?

book-like structure

list the three types of feeding strategies of ruminants

concentrate selectors, intermediate feeders and bulk roughage grazers

what are the features of concentrate selectors?

small rumen, poorly developed omasum
large liver
limited fibre digestion ability
tree & shrub browsers

what are the features of intermediate feeders?

seasonally adaptive
browsers
grazers

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