Neutral stimulus (NS)
a stimulus that the organism does not respond to
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that elicits a response
Unconditioned response (UCR)
the reaction of the organism to the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
the neutral stimulus turns into a conditioned stimulus after being paired with a conditioned unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR)
the reaction of the organism to the conditioned stimulus.
if we could have complete knowledge of past experiences and the environment of an organism, we could predict exactly what the organism will do.
a form of learning in which one stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus. EX: Pavlov
ignore behavior (ex: temper tantrums)
replacing the undesired conditioned response with a more favorable/desired one
small doses of fearful thing
introduce stimulus and prevent escape
human beings and other animals learn in similar ways
conditioned stimulus must displayed enough without the unconditioned stimulus in order for the conditioned response to disappear
is when you use an intense association to that can change you're the way you reaction to some things
When you take away the CS after extinction; you still get a response after a moment of time.
when you use two neutral stimuli are presented together to get one same response. Then individually one becomes the CS and the other is still able to get a CR.
When you associated similar stimuli to CS that creates the same CR
In order for a UCS to follow, a CS has to happen.
Subjects can tell the difference between two different stimuli.
One stimulus is paired with another and then when the second stimulus is used it still get the same effect.
(the office example)
1.process begins when an Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS) elicits a natural/reflexive, Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR).
2.Through repeated pairing of a Neutral Stimulus (NS) and the Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS); the organism will associate the two stimuli together.
3.When the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) brings forth a response without the Unconditioned Stimulus (US), a Conditioned Response (CR) occurs
increases the frequency of a response (behavior) it follows. For a reinforcer to be effective it must consistently and as immediately as possible, follow a response.
are built in needs- food, water, social contact
are associated with a primary reinforcer- like money, which is associated with the power to obtain (desirable object)
presents a stimulus; Decreases frequency of response ex: electric fence
decreases the frequency of a response it follows. Punishment 1:presents an aversive stimulus, and Punishment 2: removes stimulus.
removes a stimulus- not necessarily a positive one, removal of pain or discomfort is still negative reinforcement
buying a new toy if the child behaves.
Going out for ice cream or dinner with the child as a reward. The social aspect.
going outside and playing catch with the child.
all of these reinforcers improve learning.
improving the child's confidence by telling them how great they are.
(Removing a stimulus or event)
Ex. Traffic or If your child is acting up in a public place, you take them away from the public.
humans and nonhumans tend to behave in ways that bring them desirable consequences or enable them to avoid unpleasant ones
(Thorndike) theory of learning that emphasized role of experience in strengthening and weakening of the stimulus response connections
(Skinner) response that's followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and more likely to occur again
Effective forms of punishment:
Time-out, Response-cost, verbal reprimand, restitution, In-house suspension. Must be strong, clear, consistent, and have one warning
Ineffective Forms of Punishment
Why Punishment is ineffective:
1. Can reinforce behavior in non-punishing situations 2. Can lead to undesirable emotional responses 3. Does not show the correct behavior
Hitting, slapping, kicking, punching, spanking, shaking, shoving, choking, painful body postures (e.g., closet), electric shock, excessive exercise, prevention of bathroom use.
Effective forms of punishment:
Eye contact method
Never use physical force
The Eye-Contact Method
By using assertive body language, student becomes socially uncomfortable.
1. turn and face the student
2. say student's name in a straight, flat tone
3. make eye-contact. lean toward student and extend your hand. Say "good" and stay for 3 seconds, staring at the students.
*behaviors are identifiable in measurable terms
*Environmental conditions that may be encouraging problem are identified
*Treatment is monitored for progress and phased out after desired behavior is acquired
(Mastery Learning), Small, discrete units, A logical sequence, Demonstration of mastery, Observable criterion for mastery, Remedial activities
approach to instruction;students must learn the material in one lesson to a high level of proficiency before the next level. Based in part of the concept of Shaping.
General Principles of Social Cognitive Theory
Learning can occur without a change in behavior.People have control over their actions and environments.*Cognition plays a role in learning:Awareness, expectations, attention, retention
Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling
Academic Skills (cognitive modeling)
Aggression (bobo doll, tv)
Morality (Mr. Rogers)
lack of restraint in social situations and poor judgment; EX: Knowing you shouldn't smoke, being told not to, but you do it anyway
Characteristics of Effective Models
The model is competent, has prestige and power, behaves in stereotypical "gender-appropriate" ways, and behavior is relevant to the observer's situation
(increases in frequency) EX: Picking up toys
(decreases in frequency) EX: bad language
Sometimes, models engaging in negative behavior can inspire positive responses in students, because the behavior inspires them to avoid the consequences faced by the model
demonstration of behavior that inspires student to act-in more + (prosocial models, moral models, educational models) OR more - (peers modeling high risk behaviors).
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Motion
Moving objects are more likely to capture attention than stationary ones.
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: SIZE
ATTENTION TENDS TO BE DRAWN ON LARGER OBJECTS
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Intensity
bright colors and loud noises attract attention
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Novelty
Stimuli that are new or unusual tend to draw attention
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Incongruity
Objects that don't make sense with their context tend to capture attention
Memory Factors Influencing Attention:Social Cues-
people are more likely to pay attention to things they see others looking at and reacting to.
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Emotion
Stimuli with strong emotional associations attract attention
Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Significance
the meaning and relevance people find in an object or event can capture attention
way of taking in everything we are sensing and holding it for short time so that we can decide if we want to pay attention to it.
Characteristics of the Sensory Register: Capacity
has a very large and unlimited capacity;ex: 6-month-old infants record a good deal of what
Characteristics of the Sensory Register: Forms of Storage
information is stored in the same form which it has been sensed; ex: visual input stored in visual form, auditory input in an auditory
Characteristics of the Sensory Register: Duration
information remains in the sensory register for only a very brief time;ex: visual- less than one second and auditory- 2 to 4 sec.
Dual Store Model of Memory
Cocktail party phenomenon
attend to one spoken message while ignoring others; shift when hear name
listen to 2 messages and repeat one of them; give one message full attention
When one activity is well-practiced, fewer cognitive resources are needed and a person can do two things at once.
Characteristics of Short Term or Working Memory: Capacity
Explained by phonological loop. Capacity is amount that can be rehearsed in about 2 seconds.
Characteristics of Short Term or Working Memory: Form of Storage
auditory and visual
Characteristics of Short Term or Working Memory: Duration
about 20 seconds
Characteristics of Long Term Memory: Capacity
Characteristics of Long Term Memory: Form of Storage
semantically, in a network
Characteristics of Long Term Memory: Duration
A body of new information is stored more effectively and remembered more completely when the various pieces are interconnected
When people receive new information they often impose their own interpretation on it by making assumptions, drawing inferences.
Forming visual images of information you just learned. Ex. Reading how the Pres is elected, and visualizing process of people voting, the votes being counted, and the results.
Storage Processes>> Selection:
select what you attend to because of what you think is important; using prior knowledge, priorities, and predictions.Ex:Studying only the bold words in a text
people expecting positive behaviors and impressions from a person. EX:Little kids idolizing Tebow for football and good behavior
expecting inappropriate behaviors and impressions from a person. EX: teacher being harder on students with record for trouble
Rote learning>> No attempt to make it meaningful
Meaningful learning or Elaboration
Relating new information to old information
Sensation vs. Perception
Perception is less than sensation because we can't interpret everything we see. Each sense is sensing something, we focus&ignore some
our interpretation of the environment
the information we actually receive from the environment
easily identified by physical appearance.; A NURSE in a hospital, wears scrubs, assists a doctor
underlying similarities, needs definition: EX:intelligent, caring, empathetic, hard working
example of a concept
non example of a concept
inability to recognize all positive instances.
EX: denying a male nurse is a nurse
inability to reject all negative instances. EX:identifying a surgeon as a nurse
Encoding in Terms of Physical Characteristics
Humans can form and remember based on
our vision, hearing, smell, and taste
Encoding in Terms of Actions
Involve particular movements of the arms,
hands, legs, and neck.
Encoding in Terms of Symbols
Include words, numbers, maps, graphs
Encoding in Terms of Meanings
Ability to recall the general ideas
Types of Knowledge:
Declarative and Procedural
concerns the nature of how things are, were, or will be. Episodic and Semantic
knowing how to do things..
personal experiences (part of Declarative Knowledge)
general knowledge independent of one's experiences. (part of Declarative Knowledge)
Explaining a math problem step by step
not easily explained; EX: Forming a grammatically correct sentence without being able to say how you did it
Concept learning: Defining
Must be present in all positive circumstances
*SHOE: sole protection
Concept learning: Correlation
Found in most positive instances
*SHOE: a form of strap goes over the top
Concept learning: Irrelevant
Not found in most positive instances
*SHOE: color, size, heel height, material, style
The Power of Suggestion
One's recall of an event or some prior knowledge can be affected by how someone else words a question about it.
The Misinformation Effect
One's recall of event can be affected if they later receive false info regarding the event. This new misinfo. is integrated into their recall.
Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: IDENTITY CUES
Information that is familiar to what one is trying to retrieve EX: cued to remember Korean dictator when provided w/ pics of famous dictators
Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: ASSOCIATE CUES
Having category names for items helps w/ recall. EX: recall animals list by categorizing (e.g. types of birds, fish, mammals)
Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: FRAMES
Organizational structure EX: You may cue yourself to remember the colors of the rainbow in order using the mnemonic device ROY G. BIV
Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: CONTEXTUAL CUE
Physical environment helps with retrieval (Taking test in the rooms that material was learned)
*E.g. walking lost downtown til' I saw Driskill
Memories are lost "buried" by other information
Memories fade over time
Forgetting: Obliterative Subsumption
Details of the event become eclipsed by more prevalent factors
Painful or emotionally distressing memories are hard to remember at all or can only remember bits and pieces
Forgetting: Failure to Retrieve
Remembering something later on instead of at first
Forgetting: Construction Error
Errors in storing information or at retrieval
Ex. Learner-invented info is stored, learner remembers info that never really happened
Forgetting: Failure to Store or Consolidate
Info may have never been stored or outside factor interferes with consolidation process Ex. On FB during lecture then forget prof said on test
Forgetting: Infantile Amnesia
Can't remember anything before age 3years
teach/stud read text, model summarizing, questioning, clarifying, predicting strategies, students take on role of teacher, Improves students' listening and reading comp
Sm teacher-assigned groups Students given guidelines for how to behave Scripted cooperation and guided peer questioning Teacher is a resource and monitorIndividual and group accountability
Benefits of Cooperative Learning Activities
Higher achievement, thinking skills, self-efficacy
and more intrinsic motivation, participation, prosocial behavior
Limitations of Cooperative Learning Activities
Less effort for group rewards, Some students learn more than others or share incorrect strategies, Lack skills to help each other
Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills
*Being aware of strengths and limitations
Knowing which strategies are effective or not Monitoring one's present state *Knowing effective strategies for retrieval
Effective Learning and Study Strategies
1. Meaningful Learning and Elab. 2. Organization 3. Note-Taking 4. Identify Impt Info.-signals 5. Comp.Monitoring
Mnemonics-Why do mnemonics work?
memory tricks: Organization, Elaboration, Visual Imagery
Two words or ideas are associated by a word or phrase E.g., My friend's name is Chilico. I think of Chili Company.
Method of Loci
Locate items mentally at landmarks along a familiar route
Hang items mentally on a pegword list EX: One is a bun, Two is a shoe, ...etc
Create a story where items appear in order
Find English word that sounds like foreign word Form visual image of keyword w/ English equivalent EX: Span. word "carta" means "letter."
Superimposed Meaningful Structure
Familiar structure (sentence, acronym) is imposed on material. E.g., Great Lakes of North America =HOMES
External Retrieval Cues
Physical object to help remember EX: sticky note on computer, car dashboard, or wallet.
internal state that arouses, pushes, drives
General Effects of Motivation
•It increases energy and activity level
•It directs you toward certain goals
•Sometimes achievement linked to fact child hasn't mastered content and doesn't perform well. This assumes child is trying.
•It promotes initiation of and persistence in certain activities
•It affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes used
-Source of motivation lies outside the individual and the task
-Rewarded or punished
*EX: taking out the trash because it smells, wife yells, need room for more garbage
(enjoy in free-time) Flow-intense form of intrinsic motivation where you are so into the activity that you lose track of time
do things to make it less likely to success:justify by: -Setting high goals-Procrastinating-Taking on too much-Reducing effort-Cheating-Using alcohol or drugs
doing things to protect one's sense of competence
Sense of being capable of successfully executing tasks
Magic Marker Ex of Overjustification
By giving them too much (extrinsic motivation) they destroyed the intrinsic motivation
feel socially connected, part of a community like pets. Don't need a lot of attention but still wants to be connected.
Degree to which a person wants and needs friendly relationships with others
Characteristics of Student with high need for Affiliation
nervous, Communicate often with others, Easily influenced, Select incompetent friend over competent non-friend, lower GPA
Desire to look good to others
Characteristics of Student with high need for Approval
low self-esteem, relatively unpopular with peers
(they talk more than listen), trying to sound impressive
Characteristics of Student with high need for Achievement
realistic about tasks, ok to occasionally fail, higher standards, delay gratification, stereotypically appropriate for gender
The Role of Affect
feelings, emotions, moods
High arousal is best for easy or automatic tasks but low or medium arousal is best for more difficult tasks.
Component of intrinsic motivation (read books, watch movies, etc.. is different. Interesting doesn't have to be enjoyable.)
Relatively stable over time
Relatively unstable, something new, unusual, or surprising
M= E x V
Motivation is the product of Expectancy and Value. *E- what expectancy do you have of completing the task. (1-10) V- value you place in being successful in task (1-10)
desire to achieve competence by acquiring new knowledge or mastering a skill.
desire to look competent
Effects of Achievement goals
find learning activities meaningful and try to make most of them (involves: mastery learning and intrinsic motivation)
result of none or little motivation (avoid putting work in no matter what)
explanations for success and failure
Stable-Internal (Class was to hard, I'm really smart)
Unstable-Internal (I worked hard and earned the grade)
Stable-External (Class was too easy, I'm stupid)
Unstable-External (only read a few pages but what was on test)
how individual interprets events and consequences
I-can-do-it attitude: My success and failures are due to how hard I try. (Effort)
Locus of Control Theory:
the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them.
Internalized Motivation; tell kids to make bed,
Internalized Motivation; seeking approval before you ask them to make it
Internalized Motivation; recognizes cleanliness, have things clean
Internalized Motivation; make bed, and now also cleaning trash, dishes, toothbrush