ALD320

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Dr. Robinson

Neutral stimulus (NS)

a stimulus that the organism does not respond to

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

stimulus that elicits a response

Unconditioned response (UCR)

the reaction of the organism to the unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

the neutral stimulus turns into a conditioned stimulus after being paired with a conditioned unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned response (CR)

the reaction of the organism to the conditioned stimulus.

Determinists

if we could have complete knowledge of past experiences and the environment of an organism, we could predict exactly what the organism will do.

Classical Conditioning

a form of learning in which one stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus. EX: Pavlov

Extinguishing

ignore behavior (ex: temper tantrums)

Counter-Conditioning

replacing the undesired conditioned response with a more favorable/desired one

Systematic Desensitization

small doses of fearful thing

Flooding

introduce stimulus and prevent escape

Equipotentiality

human beings and other animals learn in similar ways

Extinction

conditioned stimulus must displayed enough without the unconditioned stimulus in order for the conditioned response to disappear

Associative Bias

is when you use an intense association to that can change you're the way you reaction to some things

Spontaneous Recovery

When you take away the CS after extinction; you still get a response after a moment of time.

Sensory Preconditioning

when you use two neutral stimuli are presented together to get one same response. Then individually one becomes the CS and the other is still able to get a CR.

Generalization

When you associated similar stimuli to CS that creates the same CR

Contingency

In order for a UCS to follow, a CS has to happen.

Stimulus discrimination

Subjects can tell the difference between two different stimuli.

Higher-order conditioning

One stimulus is paired with another and then when the second stimulus is used it still get the same effect.

Classical Conditioning

(the office example)
1.process begins when an Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS) elicits a natural/reflexive, Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR).
2.Through repeated pairing of a Neutral Stimulus (NS) and the Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS); the organism will associate the two stimuli together.
3.When the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) brings forth a response without the Unconditioned Stimulus (US), a Conditioned Response (CR) occurs

Reinforcement

increases the frequency of a response (behavior) it follows. For a reinforcer to be effective it must consistently and as immediately as possible, follow a response.

Primary reinforcers

are built in needs- food, water, social contact

Secondary reinforcers

are associated with a primary reinforcer- like money, which is associated with the power to obtain (desirable object)

Positive reinforcer

presents a stimulus; Decreases frequency of response ex: electric fence

Punishment

decreases the frequency of a response it follows. Punishment 1:presents an aversive stimulus, and Punishment 2: removes stimulus.

Negative Reinforcer

removes a stimulus- not necessarily a positive one, removal of pain or discomfort is still negative reinforcement

Material reinforcers

buying a new toy if the child behaves.

Social reinforcers

Going out for ice cream or dinner with the child as a reward. The social aspect.

Activity reinforcers

going outside and playing catch with the child.

Positive feedback

all of these reinforcers improve learning.

Intrinsic reinforcers

improving the child's confidence by telling them how great they are.

Negative Reinforcement

(Removing a stimulus or event)
Ex. Traffic or If your child is acting up in a public place, you take them away from the public.

Instrumental conditioning

humans and nonhumans tend to behave in ways that bring them desirable consequences or enable them to avoid unpleasant ones

Connectionism

(Thorndike) theory of learning that emphasized role of experience in strengthening and weakening of the stimulus response connections

Operant conditioning

(Skinner) response that's followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and more likely to occur again

Effective forms of punishment:

Time-out, Response-cost, verbal reprimand, restitution, In-house suspension. Must be strong, clear, consistent, and have one warning

Ineffective Forms of Punishment

Physical Punishment
Psychological Punishment
Missing recess
Out-of-school Suspension

Why Punishment is ineffective:

1. Can reinforce behavior in non-punishing situations 2. Can lead to undesirable emotional responses 3. Does not show the correct behavior

Corporal Punishment

Hitting, slapping, kicking, punching, spanking, shaking, shoving, choking, painful body postures (e.g., closet), electric shock, excessive exercise, prevention of bathroom use.

Effective forms of punishment:

Eye contact method
Never use physical force
Token Economy
Group contingency

The Eye-Contact Method

By using assertive body language, student becomes socially uncomfortable.
1. turn and face the student
2. say student's name in a straight, flat tone
3. make eye-contact. lean toward student and extend your hand. Say "good" and stay for 3 seconds, staring at the students.

ABA Interventions:

*behaviors are identifiable in measurable terms
*Environmental conditions that may be encouraging problem are identified
*Treatment is monitored for progress and phased out after desired behavior is acquired

Keller's PSI

(Mastery Learning), Small, discrete units, A logical sequence, Demonstration of mastery, Observable criterion for mastery, Remedial activities

Mastery Learning

approach to instruction;students must learn the material in one lesson to a high level of proficiency before the next level. Based in part of the concept of Shaping.

General Principles of Social Cognitive Theory

Learning can occur without a change in behavior.People have control over their actions and environments.*Cognition plays a role in learning:Awareness, expectations, attention, retention

Live Modeling

a person

Symbolic Modeling

...

VI Modeling

...

Behaviors That Can Be Learned Through Modeling

Academic Skills (cognitive modeling)
Aggression (bobo doll, tv)
Morality (Mr. Rogers)

Disinhibition Effect

lack of restraint in social situations and poor judgment; EX: Knowing you shouldn't smoke, being told not to, but you do it anyway

Characteristics of Effective Models

The model is competent, has prestige and power, behaves in stereotypical "gender-appropriate" ways, and behavior is relevant to the observer's situation

Facilitation

(increases in frequency) EX: Picking up toys

Inhibition

(decreases in frequency) EX: bad language

Positive Model

Sometimes, models engaging in negative behavior can inspire positive responses in students, because the behavior inspires them to avoid the consequences faced by the model

Negative Model

demonstration of behavior that inspires student to act-in more + (prosocial models, moral models, educational models) OR more - (peers modeling high risk behaviors).

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Motion

Moving objects are more likely to capture attention than stationary ones.

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: SIZE

ATTENTION TENDS TO BE DRAWN ON LARGER OBJECTS

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Intensity

bright colors and loud noises attract attention

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Novelty

Stimuli that are new or unusual tend to draw attention

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Incongruity

Objects that don't make sense with their context tend to capture attention

Memory Factors Influencing Attention:Social Cues-

people are more likely to pay attention to things they see others looking at and reacting to.

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Emotion

Stimuli with strong emotional associations attract attention

Memory Factors Influencing Attention: Significance

the meaning and relevance people find in an object or event can capture attention

Sensory Register

way of taking in everything we are sensing and holding it for short time so that we can decide if we want to pay attention to it.

Characteristics of the Sensory Register: Capacity

has a very large and unlimited capacity; ex: 6-month-old infants record a good deal of what

Characteristics of the Sensory Register: Forms of Storage

information is stored in the same form which it has been sensed; ex: visual input stored in visual form, auditory input in an auditory

Characteristics of the Sensory Register: Duration

information remains in the sensory register for only a very brief time; ex: visual- less than one second and auditory- 2 to 4 sec.

Dual Store Model of Memory

...

Cocktail party phenomenon

attend to one spoken message while ignoring others; shift when hear name

Shadowing

listen to 2 messages and repeat one of them; give one message full attention

Automaticity

When one activity is well-practiced, fewer cognitive resources are needed and a person can do two things at once.

Characteristics of Short Term or Working Memory: Capacity

Explained by phonological loop. Capacity is amount that can be rehearsed in about 2 seconds.

Characteristics of Short Term or Working Memory: Form of Storage

auditory and visual

Characteristics of Short Term or Working Memory: Duration

about 20 seconds

Characteristics of Long Term Memory: Capacity

unlimited

Characteristics of Long Term Memory: Form of Storage

semantically, in a network

Characteristics of Long Term Memory: Duration

til death

Internal Organization

A body of new information is stored more effectively and remembered more completely when the various pieces are interconnected

Elaboration

When people receive new information they often impose their own interpretation on it by making assumptions, drawing inferences.

Visual Imagery

Forming visual images of information you just learned. Ex. Reading how the Pres is elected, and visualizing process of people voting, the votes being counted, and the results.

Storage Processes>> Selection:

select what you attend to because of what you think is important; using prior knowledge, priorities, and predictions.Ex:Studying only the bold words in a text

Halo Effect

people expecting positive behaviors and impressions from a person. EX:Little kids idolizing Tebow for football and good behavior

Horns Effect

expecting inappropriate behaviors and impressions from a person. EX: teacher being harder on students with record for trouble

Rehearsal

Rote learning>> No attempt to make it meaningful

Meaningful learning or Elaboration

Relating new information to old information

Sensation vs. Perception

Perception is less than sensation because we can't interpret everything we see. Each sense is sensing something, we focus&ignore some

Perception

our interpretation of the environment

Sensation

the information we actually receive from the environment

Concrete Concept:

easily identified by physical appearance.; A NURSE in a hospital, wears scrubs, assists a doctor

Abstract

underlying similarities, needs definition: EX:intelligent, caring, empathetic, hard working

Positive Instance

example of a concept

Negative Instance

non example of a concept

Under-generalization

inability to recognize all positive instances.
EX: denying a male nurse is a nurse

Over-generalization

inability to reject all negative instances. EX:identifying a surgeon as a nurse

Encoding in Terms of Physical Characteristics

Humans can form and remember based on
our vision, hearing, smell, and taste

Encoding in Terms of Actions

Involve particular movements of the arms,
hands, legs, and neck.

Encoding in Terms of Symbols

Include words, numbers, maps, graphs

Encoding in Terms of Meanings

Ability to recall the general ideas

Types of Knowledge:

Declarative and Procedural

Declarative:

concerns the nature of how things are, were, or will be. Episodic and Semantic

Procedural

knowing how to do things..

Episodic

personal experiences (part of Declarative Knowledge)

Semantic

general knowledge independent of one's experiences. (part of Declarative Knowledge)

Explicit Memory

easily explained
Explaining a math problem step by step

Implicit Memory

not easily explained; EX: Forming a grammatically correct sentence without being able to say how you did it

Concept learning: Defining

Must be present in all positive circumstances
*SHOE: sole protection

Concept learning: Correlation

Found in most positive instances
*SHOE: a form of strap goes over the top

Concept learning: Irrelevant

Not found in most positive instances
*SHOE: color, size, heel height, material, style

The Power of Suggestion

One's recall of an event or some prior knowledge can be affected by how someone else words a question about it.

The Misinformation Effect

One's recall of event can be affected if they later receive false info regarding the event. This new misinfo. is integrated into their recall.

Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: IDENTITY CUES

Information that is familiar to what one is trying to retrieve EX: cued to remember Korean dictator when provided w/ pics of famous dictators

Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: ASSOCIATE CUES

Having category names for items helps w/ recall. EX: recall animals list by categorizing (e.g. types of birds, fish, mammals)

Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: FRAMES

Organizational structure EX: You may cue yourself to remember the colors of the rainbow in order using the mnemonic device ROY G. BIV

Long- Term Memory III: Retrieval and Forgetting: CONTEXTUAL CUE

Physical environment helps with retrieval (Taking test in the rooms that material was learned)
*E.g. walking lost downtown til' I saw Driskill

Forgetting: Interference

Memories are lost "buried" by other information

Forgetting: Decay

Memories fade over time

Forgetting: Obliterative Subsumption

Details of the event become eclipsed by more prevalent factors

Forgetting: Repression

Painful or emotionally distressing memories are hard to remember at all or can only remember bits and pieces

Forgetting: Failure to Retrieve

Remembering something later on instead of at first

Forgetting: Construction Error

Errors in storing information or at retrieval
Ex. Learner-invented info is stored, learner remembers info that never really happened

Forgetting: Failure to Store or Consolidate

Info may have never been stored or outside factor interferes with consolidation process Ex. On FB during lecture then forget prof said on test

Forgetting: Infantile Amnesia

Can't remember anything before age 3years

Reciprocal Teaching

teach/stud read text, model summarizing, questioning, clarifying, predicting strategies, students take on role of teacher, Improves students' listening and reading comp

Cooperative Learning

Sm teacher-assigned groups Students given guidelines for how to behave Scripted cooperation and guided peer questioning Teacher is a resource and monitorIndividual and group accountability

Jigsaw technique

...

Benefits of Cooperative Learning Activities

Higher achievement, thinking skills, self-efficacy
and more intrinsic motivation, participation, prosocial behavior

Limitations of Cooperative Learning Activities

Less effort for group rewards, Some students learn more than others or share incorrect strategies, Lack skills to help each other

Metacognitive Knowledge and Skills

*Being aware of strengths and limitations
Knowing which strategies are effective or not Monitoring one's present state *Knowing effective strategies for retrieval

Effective Learning and Study Strategies

1. Meaningful Learning and Elab. 2. Organization 3. Note-Taking 4. Identify Impt Info.-signals 5. Comp.Monitoring

Mnemonics-Why do mnemonics work?

memory tricks: Organization, Elaboration, Visual Imagery

Verbal mediation

Two words or ideas are associated by a word or phrase E.g., My friend's name is Chilico. I think of Chili Company.

Method of Loci

Locate items mentally at landmarks along a familiar route

Pegword method

Hang items mentally on a pegword list EX: One is a bun, Two is a shoe, ...etc

Link method

Create a story where items appear in order

Keyword method

Find English word that sounds like foreign word Form visual image of keyword w/ English equivalent EX: Span. word "carta" means "letter."

Superimposed Meaningful Structure

Familiar structure (sentence, acronym) is imposed on material. E.g., Great Lakes of North America =HOMES

External Retrieval Cues

Physical object to help remember EX: sticky note on computer, car dashboard, or wallet.

Motivation

internal state that arouses, pushes, drives

General Effects of Motivation

•It increases energy and activity level
•It directs you toward certain goals
•Sometimes achievement linked to fact child hasn't mastered content and doesn't perform well. This assumes child is trying.
•It promotes initiation of and persistence in certain activities
•It affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes used

Extrinsic Motivation

-Source of motivation lies outside the individual and the task
-Rewarded or punished
*EX: taking out the trash because it smells, wife yells, need room for more garbage

Intrinsic Motivation

(enjoy in free-time) Flow-intense form of intrinsic motivation where you are so into the activity that you lose track of time

Self-handicapping

do things to make it less likely to success:justify by: -Setting high goals-Procrastinating-Taking on too much-Reducing effort-Cheating-Using alcohol or drugs

Self-worth

doing things to protect one's sense of competence

Competence

Sense of being capable of successfully executing tasks

Magic Marker Ex of Overjustification

By giving them too much (extrinsic motivation) they destroyed the intrinsic motivation

relatedness

feel socially connected, part of a community like pets. Don't need a lot of attention but still wants to be connected.

Affiliation

Degree to which a person wants and needs friendly relationships with others

Characteristics of Student with high need for Affiliation

nervous, Communicate often with others, Easily influenced, Select incompetent friend over competent non-friend, lower GPA

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