-what kind of impressions do we have of others
-how we think affects our impressions of others, our attitudes, and eventually our behavior
-the study of the mechanisms that form our impressions and attitudes toward people and other objects
-the study of how we understand other people's behavior as well as our own
-mental grasp of objects through the senses
-object of interest in social psych is the person
what info do we use when making judgments?
-appearance (age, gender, ethnicity, attractiveness)
-info from others
-attribution is the process we use to explain other people's behavior
-examine consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
-the individual, not the situation (perhaps Tom's just a happy person.. perhaps he is a little strange)
-personality, attitudes, or traits are driving the behavior
-yes no no
-the situation, not the person (perhaps everyone jumps on Oprah's couch.. perhaps he took meds that make ppl loopy)
-the role, situation, or norms are driving the behavior
-yes, yes, yes
covariation model of attribution
suggests we use information about:
-ex. shirt compliment : something about person and situation
how often is this behavior present in the situation?
-is Tom always jumping on the couch when he's on her show?
does this behavior occur in other situations?
-is he normally quirky?
do other people behave the same way in the same situation?
-what are other people doing, do they leap on her couch?
fundamental attribution error
-often we don't have time to examine consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
-when it comes to others, we will often think they behaved that way because of who they are, rather than because of the situation they find themselves in
-ex. not - oh that poor person must have the sun in their eyes
-we tend to see different causal explanations for own and other behavior
-what are we focusing our attention on?:
Self (External reasons - justify our own behavior: see how behavior changes)
Other (internal causes of behavior - behavior resulted because of the dispositional characteristics of the other person)
-for our own behaviors we are informed by our environment
-we evaluate ourselves by comparing ourselves to others
-we observe our own behaviors to infer our internal characteristics
reflected appraisal process
-we know ourselves by imagining how other people see us
social identity theory
(Tajfel and Turner)
Identity based on
-personal, individual-level qualities
-social groups (school, teams)
-need to see self as positive and distinct
-achieved by social comparison of relevant identity to an outgroup on valued dimension
biases in self-perception
-Self serving attributional bias
False consensus effect
False uniqueness effect
ex. negative traits - everyone procrastinates, but nobody else can do what I do well.
-illusion of control
Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model
-focuses on the consequences that another person's success or good performance has on one's own self evaluation
-to see ourselves in a positive light
~bask in reflected glory
~use downward social comparison
~the relevance for self-concept drives which process we use
change in private beliefs and attitudes
social influence (ch 14)
-change in behavior, caused by real or perceived pressure
-may involve attitude change, but not necessarily!
components of attitudes
feelings and emotions elicited by the attitude object
actions and intentions associated with the attitude
knowledge, beliefs, memories, images about the properties of the attitude object
the affect component