Defends body against anything that is not recognized as part of the body
Bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, parasitic worms, and prions that cause disease
A substance that triggers an immune response is called a(n)____, while a disease-causing agent is called a _______.
Antigen and Pathogen
Target any foreign organism or substance
Remembers those targets in order to mount a quicker response upon subsequent exposure
Cell mediated response (toxins)
Structures, mechanisms. Physical surface barriers (external)
Layer of dead skin cells filled with keratin
Lining of respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system
Sweat and oil. Acid and digestive enzymes. Acidity of urine. Saliva and tears.
Chemical Surface Barriers
Neutrophils and Monocytes
Search for abnormal cells. Release proteins that puncture the target cell.
Natural Killer Cells
Certain cells infected with a virus release proteins called
_____attract macrophages and natural killer cells.
Interferons stimulate cells not yet infected to produce proteins that will interfere with the_____.
Response to tissue damage
Mast cells and basophils release histamine which dilates blood vessels
Increases metabolic activity,
Excess fluid increases pressure. Bacteria may release toxins. Injured cells release
Histamine increases permeability of capillaries
Abnormally high body temperature
B cells and T cells
Responsible for specific immunity and memory
White blood cells
Recognition and destruction of specific pathogens
Specific Immune Response (thru lymphocytes)
Body must differentiate between
'self' and 'nonself'
As they mature they are programmed to recognize one particular type of ______
When a B cell or T cell with the appropriate receptor is stimulated by a specific antigen it begins to _____, giving rise to two lines of cells
One line of cells is made up of __________ which attack the antigen or antigen bearing cell
_______generally only live for a few days
The other line of cells is composed of
______remember the particular antigen that triggered the response and mount a rapid, intense response if that pathogen is encountered again
The immune system mounts either an ______or a ________
Antibody-Mediated response; Cell-Mediated response
______ reacts primarily to antigens that are found in body fluids
_____ are the active antigens
Bind to a particular antigen and mark it as something to be eliminated (antigen - antibody complex)
Physically hinder some antigens from destroying or injuring the body's cells.
Enhances the nonspecific immune response already begun
Activates T cells
______ depends on a type of T cell called the cytotoxic T cell
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
Once activated, the _____ destroy cells infected by viruses, or other pathogens and cancerous cells, by causing them to burst.(perforins)
The cell-mediated response of the immune system uses ____, while the antibody-mediated response uses _____.
T Cells and Antibodies
Develops when the body produces memory B cells and T cells after an infection or when a person is immunized against infection
Either the antigen itself, or their products, which
have been treated so they are no longer virulent
Individual is given prepared antibodies, either from another person or from an animal, e.g., antivenom
Injection of anti-hepatitis antibodies after exposure to hepatitis A is an example of ____ immunity
Oversensitivity to substances such as pet hair or pollen that ordinarily would cause no harm
Trigger the release of histamine
May also lead to anaphylactic shock
Moving O2 into the lungs and removing CO2
Processes of Respiration
The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the lungs and the blood
Transport of O2 from the lungs to the cells and of CO2 from the cells to the lungs
The exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the cells
Warm, filter, moisten air. Specialized epithelium-hairs, mucus, cilia. Sweep mucus, particles, bacteria, to the throat where they can be swallowed and destroyed
Air-filled spaces in the bones of the face that
help warm and moisten the air
Throat, connects nasal and oral cavities to the trachea
Connect the upper region of the pharynx with the middle ear
Voice box - vocal cords
Keeps material from entering the respiratory system
Opening of the larynx is the______
Covered by the_____
______are strands of tissue stretched across the glottis
What prevents food from going down the trachea?
Connects larynx to bronchi
Rigid - held open by 'C - shaped' cartilagenous rings
Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Help keep lungs clean by sweeping debris to
Help to trap debris
Trachea divides into _____ that branch to each lung
Attacks of wheezing and difficulty in breathing
Bronchi branch and divide and subdivide into smaller______
Sites of gas exchange
A capillary bed surrounds each _____
Lungs contain about 300 x 106
The surface of the alveoli is moist to allow for
Oxygen moves from the air into the bloodstream via the _______
Keep the alveoli open
Is produced late in fetal development.
Inhalation and Exhalation
Movement of air in and out of lungs.
_____are elastic and the thoracic cavity is a sealed chamber.
_____cavity expands and air moves into lungs to equalize pressure
Contracts and flattens
The external _______ muscles contract, moving the rib cage up and out
Contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm causes the thoracic cavity to _______ and the air pressure in the lungs to _______.
Expand and Decrease
Maximum amount of air that can be moved in and out of lungs during a single breath
Normal amount of air moved in and out of lung with each breath, about 500 ml.
Volume of air that can be forced into lungs.
Volume of air that can be forced out of lungs.
About 1L remains in lungs. Helps keep lungs inflated
Hb bound to O2 is called _____
Catalyzes the reaction in the red blood cells and the bicarbonate ions diffuse out to the plasma for transport to the lungs
exchange of gases between air and blood in lungs ... diffusion
Exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) between blood and tissue fluid... diffusion
Breathing center in the medulla oblongata
_____control of breathing (rhythmic).
Based on input from
______chemoreceptors are located in the medulla.
______chemoreceptors are located in the aortic
bodies and the carotid bodies
____ chemoreceptors respond to changes in CO2 (H+).
Monitor CO2 and H+
Cells in brain stem detect H+ and _____ breathing rate
Increased breathing rate decreases
Chemoreceptors in carotid arteries and aorta are sensitive to really low levels of O2
Too much CO2 is expelled, blood vessels in head constrict, may cause "lightheadedness."
Breathing at a low rate, results in too much CO2 in blood.
Long tube - gastrointestinal (GI) tract (gut)
Accessory glands release secretions into this tube
Innermost layer, secretes mucus
Lubricates the food; protects the lining; and, in some regions, secretes digestive enzymes
Connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
Moves food through GI tract and helps with
digesting and mixing the food
The inner layer of muscle circles the tube and the outer layer runs longitudinally.
Two or three muscle layers
Connective tissue surrounding the tube.
Physically breaking food into smaller pieces.
Breaking chemical bonds in larger, complex molecules to produce molecules small enough to be absorbed by the body
Dependent on _____ and their three dimensional shape
Makes it easier for a reaction to occur
Lower Activation Energy
Begins mechanical digestion of food and chemical digestion of starch
Saliva moistens the food and binds the food particles together
Saliva also contains _____ that begins to digest starches (carbohydrates).
Mechanical digestion begins in the _____, while chemical digestion begins in the _____.
Mouth and Mouth
Throat - area shared by respiratory and digestive systems
Muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach
Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction that moves food through GI tract.
Thick muscular organ (three layers of muscle).
1. Storage of food
Control the openings of the stomach.
Liquefaction of food. Mechanical digestion mixes the food with secretions of the stomach until it is a soupy mixture called
Initial chemical digestion of
Gastric glands also secrete
The mixture of HCl and pepsin is called
The primary function of the stomach is to
Store and digest food
Chemical digestion, absorption of nutrients
Wall of small intestine is folded and contains finger-like projections called
The villi are covered in epithelial cells that contain microscopic projections called
Increase surface area of epithelium
Contain blood capillaries and a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal.
The products of fat digestion combine with
bile salts to form particles called
The first section of the small intestine is called the
Partially digested food (chyme) enters the duodenum from the
Most chemical digestion and absorption.
Jejenum and Ileum
About 10% digested in mouth by salivary amylase
Pepsinogen is secreted and is converted to pepsin by
Pepsin breaks proteins into shorter chains
Break down peptides.
Chemically digests peptides
The enzyme that breaks down fat, is soluble in water and not in lipids.