MGT 300 Test 3

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Wally

Dilbert's coworker that does as little as possible

disparate treatment

Darlene Jespersen worked in a sports bar. She was an outstanding employee, but she didn't wear makeup because she felt it "took away her credibility" and interfered with her ability to be an effective bartender, which sometimes required her to deal with unruly, intoxicated guests. This changed when the sports bar implemented a "beverage department image transformation" program. Female employees were told they would be fired if they did not wear makeup. Jespersen contended that it was an example of ____ because male employees did not have to wear makeup.

piecework

One of the reasons items manufactured in Southeast Asia are imported into the United States less expensively is that workers are paid a small amount of money for each item produced. The manufacturers operating in Southeast Asia use what type of pay plan?

conduct a job analysis

Before beginning to recruit, organizations must ____.

defamation lawsuits

Which of the following is a legal problem employers may encounter in seeking, providing, or using employment references as part of the selection process?

structured

The ____ interview uses only standardized, job-related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidates

background checks

A study in the construction industry found that when equipment is stolen from building sites, workers are the culprits 82 percent of the time. Which type of selection information would employers in the construction industry receive the greatest benefit from if their goal is to stop employee theft?

cognitive ability test

Which of the following types of tests accurately predicts job performance in almost all kinds of jobs?

Validation refers to the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance.

Which of the following statements about job validation tests is true?

Employee-related laws apply to job application forms and résumés.

Which of the following statements about résumés and job application forms is true?

true

Job analysis is a purposeful and systematic process of collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.

only after a job offer has been made

According to the Americans with Disabilities Act, disabilities (and reasonable accommodations for them) should be discussed ____.

Sexual harassment can occur between people of the same sex.

Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?

career paths

Which of the following is an internal recruiting method?

hierarchical pay

Which of the following is NOT an example of a pay-variability decision used to motivate employee performance?

false

The hostile work environment form of sexual harassment occurs when employment outcomes such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to being sexually harassed.

work sample tests

Which of the following is a direct (rather than indirect) measure of job applicants' capability to do the job?

outplacement centers

Which of the following provides employment counseling services for employees faced with downsizing?

can sue for defamation

"References Etc" will pose as a prospective employer, call a prior employer on an employee's behalf, and find out what the former employer is saying. If the prior employer provides unsubstantiated negative information, then the job applicant ____.

job specification

Zachary Schneider saw a sign in the window of an Amy's Ice Creams franchise operation. The sign said the company was looking for new employees. When he went in to ask for a job application, he was given a paper bag and told to do "something creative with it." The test was to see whether the job applicant was suited to carrying out the chain's mission: "To make people's day." This type of pre-employment assessment is not unusual. Gourmet grocery chain Central Market uses a four-page application form which includes essay questions such as "Tell us about your favorite food experience." If it seems an applicant is a good match for the company, he or she is asked to make a statement about himself or herself using items found in the grocery store and to participate with other applicants in a roundtable discussion.

Refer to Trends in Hiring Practices. The need for creative skills in order to work at Amy's would be listed as a ____ that the company's HR department would have developed for franchisees.

biodata

A perennial problem of teacher education programs is to screen the highest quality candidates from those who should not work in schools. One suggested method is to ask applicants a series of questions about their experiences with siblings, how they treat stress, their attitude toward procrastination, and ways they like to have fun. This method, which can use over 100 questions, gathers ____.

Job specifications, job analyses, and job descriptions

____ help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related

Validation refers to the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance

Which of the following statements about job validation tests is true

Human resource management

____ is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people for the company

validated

A study in the construction industry found that when equipment is stolen from building sites, workers are the culprits 82 percent of the time. If background checks reduced employee thievery over a period of time and throughout the industry, then this selection process would be ____.

all of these

Which of the following types of information would typically be collected as part of a job analysis?

bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs

The fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of ____.

false

Cognitive ability tests are also called aptitude tests.

background check

Estimates of from 2 percent to 20 percent of a taxicab company's driver workforce could result as new federal regulations requiring that all drivers be fingerprinted and the drivers checked to see if they have a criminal record. This new ____ will cause a worsening problem for the already over-extended employer

specific ability test

Aptitude tests are also called ____.

true

Job analyses, job descriptions, and job specifications help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related.

external recruiting

Refer to Domino's. Robert Chabot relies heavily on employee referrals to first identify good job applicants. In other words, Chabot uses ____.

true

Background checks can be used to verify the truthfulness and accuracy of information that applicants provide about themselves.

false

The hostile work environment form of sexual harassment occurs when employment outcomes such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to being sexually harassed

conduct a job analysis

Before beginning to recruit, organizations must ____.

selection

____ is the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job

Before firing employees, managers should give them a chance to improve

To minimize the problems inherent in firing employees, managers should do which of the following?

wrongful discharge

Sharron Grant-Burton was a marketing director for Covenant Care, owner of skilled-nursing and assisted-living facilities. During a discussion of the fairness of the company's bonus structure with other marketing directors, Grant-Burton said she did not receive a bonus because her executive director "did not believe in them." Several days later, Grant-Burton was fired and told she had been terminated for a number of unspecified reasons, including her comments about bonuses. This is an example of a ____.

career paths

Which of the following is an internal recruiting method?

The Internet allows companies to quickly reach large numbers of people

Which of the following statements about Internet recruiting is true?

a hostile work environment

Former female employees of a national real estate brokerage firm claimed that they were subjected to lewd remarks, unwanted groping, and sexual propositions by male co-workers. According to their attorney, "The firm created a frat-house culture and then failed to do anything about it." Their suit claims the women were victims of ____.

are accurately described by none of these

Older workers ____.

true

Surface-level diversity refers to differences such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure

Hispanic- Americans

The fastest-growing population group in the United States is ____.

organizational plurality

The term ____ refers to a work environment where (1) each member is empowered to contribute in a way that maximizes the benefits to the organization, customers, and themselves; and (2) the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarizing people on the basis of their membership in a particular group

true

Diversity helps companies save money by reducing turnover, decreasing absenteeism, and avoiding expensive lawsuits.

glass ceiling

When AT&T hired a female as its president, it was evidence that AT&T does not have a(n) ____ to prevent women from rising to leadership positions

diversity audit

A(n) ____ is a formal assessment that measures employee and management attitudes, investigates the extent to which people are advantaged or disadvantaged with respect to hiring and promotions, and reviews companies' diversity-related policies and procedures.

Diversity

____ helps companies grow by improving the quality of problem solving and improving marketplace understanding.

surface-level diversity

When Suzanne Pogell wanted to learn to sail, she could find no one to teach her because men were the ones who sailed, and women were their crew. After mastering sailing, Suzanne started an all-woman sailing school called Womanship as a sole proprietorship. The male sailors who would not teach her were exhibiting ____.

openness to experience

An family restaurant based in the English speaking providence of Ontario, was planning on opening a catering business in the French-speaking areas of Canada, This restaurant would need employees with which of the following dimensions of personality?

assistive technology

The world's biggest manufacturer of locks is part of a national program in which employers are encouraging workers to continue working as long as they are physically able. To help its aging workers, the lock maker has provided them with magnifying lenses that give them the vision acuity they need to work on the small parts within a lock. These lenses are an example of ____.

learning and effectiveness

Bentley College launched a comprehensive diversity initiative that includes frequent diversity retreats for faculty, staff, and student leaders; innovative recruitment efforts; employee benefits for domestic partners; and extensive support services focused on race, gender, and disability. Bentley uses the ____ paradigm for managing diversity

sex discrimination

When Suzanne Pogell wanted to learn to sail, she could find no one to teach her because men were the ones who sailed, and women were their crew. After mastering sailing, Suzanne started an all-woman sailing school called Womanship as a sole proprietorship. By creating her own business, Suzanne overcame problems associated with ____ while creating a different version of the same problem.

the access and legitimacy paradigm

Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity is similar to the business growth advantage of diversity?

turnover costs

According to the text, ____ typically amount to more than 90 percent of employees' salaries

the learning and effectiveness paradigm

Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity not only takes into account surface-level diversity but also focuses on integrating deep-level diversity differences such as personality, attitudes, beliefs, and values into the actual work of the organization?

False

The Big Five dimensions of personality are autonomy, Machiavellianism, empathy, locus of control, and affectivity.

c. Accommodations for disabilities needn't be expensive

Which of the following statements about disabilities is true?

emotional stability

Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality dimensions?

make a commitment to reasonable workplace accommodations

To make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can ____.

social integration

____ is the degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective.

improving marketplace understanding

Diversity helps companies grow by ____.

survey employees about their perceptions and satisfaction

To make sure that people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds have the same opportunities, companies should ____.

do all of these

To make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can ____.

true

The fastest-growing racial group in the United States is Hispanics.

false

Affirmative action actually makes good business sense in terms of cost savings, the ability to attract and retain talent, and business growth.

create a diversity program

What action can a medium-sized manufacturing company take if it wants to create a positive work environment; where every employee does his or her best work and individual differences are respected and not just ignored?

is done voluntarily

Unilever has operations in 150 countries. Recently, Unilever took 100 of these top managers on a jungle retreat to Costa Rica. To the dismay of Unilever's chair, there were no women in the group. Upon investigation, he learned that only one woman had even been invited. As the retreat progressed, its participants commented on the richness of diversity in nature and how everything needs diversity to grow. These comments caused Unilever's chair to establish an executive committee to examine practical ways to overcome barriers to women's promotion. They decided to avoid setting numerical targets because they encourage positive discrimination and instead examined recruitment and promotion practices.

Refer to Unilever. This is an example of a diversity program because it ____.

turnover costs

According to the text, ____ typically amount to more than 90 percent of employees' salaries.

ensure that younger and older workers interact with each other

To help companies reduce age discrimination, their managers can ____.

surface-level diversity

When Suzanne Pogell wanted to learn to sail, she could find no one to teach her because men were the ones who sailed, and women were their crew. After mastering sailing, Suzanne started an all-woman sailing school called Womanship as a sole proprietorship. The male sailors who would not teach her were exhibiting ____.

the access and legitimace paradigm

Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity is similar to the business growth advantage of diversity?

the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, and achievement-oriented

Conscientiousness is ____.

the access and legitimacy paradigm

According to a recent census, over 40 percent of the Australian population was born overseas or had one parent born overseas. The abilities of these immigrants add value to the Australian workplace. The Australian government would have employers welcome these migrants and their children into their organizations as valued workers. Which paradigm for managing diversity does the Australian government most likely support?

true

The glass ceiling is the so-called invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations.

true

Reasonable accommodations for disabled worked include assistive technology.

false

The learning and effectiveness paradigm for managing diversity focuses on the acceptance and celebration of differences; so that the diversity within the company matches the diversity found among primary stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, and local communities.

false

The Big Five dimension of conscientiousness is the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good-natured, tolerant, and trusting.

false

Diversity exists in organizations when there is a variety of demographic, cultural, and personal differences among the customers who do business with them.

multiplicative

According to some industrial psychologists, job performance is a(n) ____ function of motivation, ability, and situational constraints.

consistently, contingently, and quickly

For punishment to work (i.e., to weaken the frequency of undesirable behaviors without creating a backlash), the punishment must be strong enough to stop the undesired behavior and must be administered ____.

false

Expectancy theory describes one's motivation as a primarily unconscious process.

false

The basic components of equity theory are outcomes, instrumentality, and valence.

false

Goal specificity is the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish.

intrinsic rewards

____ are the rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.

high valence

According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. For engineering students who believe their efforts will lead to better teaching, the motivation to fill out a teaching evaluation would have a ____.

false

Distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions.

goal commitment

Goal acceptance is most similar to the idea of ____.

punishment

The city of Cairo has the world's greatest collection of Islamic buildings and statues. It would seem an ideal location for Muslim tourists, but unfortunately preservation activities have been inadequate and often more destructive than constructive. Imagine the Egyptian government is instituting a marketing campaign to motivate tourists to spend their vacation dollars in Cairo. Imagine tourists visiting Cairo and being motivated never to visit there again due to the fact that every old building they saw seemed more likely to cave in than the last one they had seen. In terms of motivational theory, ____ would have occurred.

false

According to the equity theory, objective reality rather than employee perceptions that determines employee motivation.

distributive justice

____ is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated.

instrumentality

According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. In terms of the expectancy theory, the likelihood that students feel their inputs on the evaluations will lead directly to improved instruction is called ____.

satisfy employees' lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs

What practical steps can a manager take to motivate employees to increase their effort?

referents

In equity theory, ____ are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly

negative reinforcement

Which of the following is also called avoidance learning?

positive reinforcement

Users of credit and debit cards that earn the owners money or rewards towards future purchases, is an example of _______.

make sure workers truly accept organizational goals

Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ____.

true

An intrinsic reward is a reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.

safety

Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow?

underreward

Currently the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) pays Olympic athletes $25,000 for each gold medal, $15,000 for a silver medal, and $10,000 for a bronze medal. The USOC pays disabled athletes only 10 percent of what the Olympic athletes are paid. Paralympic athletes are angry at being treated unfairly. What kind of inequity are the Paralympic athletes experiencing?

variable interval

In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, consequences follow a behavior after different times, some shorter and some longer, that vary around a specified average time.

false

According to the equity theory, objective reality rather than employee perceptions that determines employee motivation

achievement

The owner of a small local chain of retail stores that target affluent women and carry eclectic lines of wrapping paper, stationery, invitations, and gifts has expressed a strong need to expand nationwide. According to McClelland's Learned Needs Theory, the owner has a need for ____.

satisfy employees' lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs

What practical steps can a manager take to motivate employees to increase their effort?

do all of these

For the goal-setting theory to work, goals must ____.

goals can energize behavior

Which of the following statements about goal-setting theory is true

true

Motivation is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal

reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement

The two parts of reinforcement are ____.

false

According to some industrial psychologists, Performance = Motivation ´ Ability

schedule of reinforcement

A(n) ____ is the set of rules regarding reinforcement contingencies such as which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those consequences will be delivered.

higher-order and lower-order needs

On the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are ____.

continuous

In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, a consequence follows every instance of a behavior

goal

France has 14 million smokers. More importantly, smokers in France are closely associated with the French culture. So when the French government waged a war against smoking, it set as its ____ to reduce smoking by 30 percent by the end of the decade.

punishment

Excessive speed is a major cause of road crashes in Australia. The Australian government is thinking of using cameras to catch speeders. According to reinforcement theory, Australian officials are using ____ to control speeding

satisfaction

According to the motivational model presented in the text, perceived inequity directly affects ____.

safety

Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow

increasing outcomes

For workers who feel underpaid, creating a union at their place of employment to attain higher wages can be a mechanism for restoring equity by ____.

equity theory

Although both Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and the advent of professional women's sporting significant discrepancies still exist between men's and women's sports. For example, women receive less media coverage, promotion, and institutional support. According to ____, the motivation for women athletes to perform at the top of their ability is less than that for men.

make sure workers truly accept organizational goals

Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ____.

true

As a leader behavior, initiating structure is the degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks

consideration

Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic's CEO Betsy McLaughlin relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. She relies on their input before making inventory decisions and treats her employees as equals. McLaughlin is demonstrating ____.

unethical charismatic leader

People with Machiavellian personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals. Add that skill to someone with the ability to create strong bonds with followers and you have described a leader who is a(n) ____.

transformational

UPS was founded UPS in 1907 as a message delivery business. The development of the telephone would have put an end to the business if UPS's founder had not been a ____ type of leader. One who was able to get his employees to accomplish more than they had thought possible and re-invent the company as a company that delivered goods for retailers

true

While transformational leaders use visionary and inspirational appeals to influence followers, transactional leadership is based on an exchange process.

true

Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals

create a positive image of the future

The author of The Science of Good and Evil describes his meeting with the founders of Google in the book. He described them as visionary leaders, which means their primary goal for being in business is to ____.

charismatic leadership

____ refers to the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers

directive

Under the leadership of Michael Eisner, The Walt Disney Company developed an "executive-centric, Eisner-centric culture"—whatever Eisner wanted to happen, he made happen. In terms of the path-goal theory, Eisner used a(n) ____ leadership style to improve Disney's profitability

transactional leadership

Which leadership style would be most likely to rely on positive and negative reinforcement?

directive leadership

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what type of leadership is being practiced that involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations

job performance; job satisfaction

Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts primarily on ____.

trait

The "great person" theory is another name for the ____ theory of leadership.

true

According to the normative decision theory, using the right degree of employee participation improves the quality of decisions and the extent to which employees accept and are committed to decisions

true

As described in the path-goal theory, directive leadership is similar to the key leadership behavior of initiating structure

initiating structure; considerations

Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ____ and ____, are central to successful leadership

strong position power

Some employees called former General Electric, CEO Jack Welch, "Bloody Jack" because his restructuring efforts eliminated numerous jobs and product lines without thought about how individual employees were impacted. Mr. Welch was viewed as "the hatchet man," and the source of the firings. Under Fiedler's contingency theory, someone acting like Mr. Welch would be viewed as having ____.

true

There is no such thing as a "best" leadership style for all situations and employees.

These behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time.

Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true?

concern for production

Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?

false

Benchmarking is the process of setting corporate norms

forces managers at each level of the company to set specific goals and measure performance in each of four areas

The Balanced Scorecard approach to control ____.

bureaucratic

____ controls should be used when it is necessary to standardize operating procedures and establish limits

true

Companies may determine standards by evaluating their capacity to enable goal achievement, by listening to customers, by observing competitors, or by benchmarking other companies

false

Concertive control produces less stress for workers than bureaucratic control.

suboptimization

____ occurs when performance improvement is attained in one part of an organization but only at the expense of decreased performance in another part

standards

A report calling for a company to set clear targets to improve fuel economy and to cut factory emissions would want the company to establish emission control ____.

be highly resistant to change

Companies that rely on bureaucratic control tend to ____.

listening to customers

A chain of specialty fashion stores has interviewed a sample of its female customers and learned that a customer can be expected to visit the store looking for new merchandise on average every two weeks. The chain of stores was able to set this standard through ____.

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