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anaphase

mitotic stage where chromosomes separate at the centromeres

asters

microtubles and fibers that radiate our from centrioles

asexual reproduction

reproduction involving only one parent

blastula

hollow ball of cells formed during the early stages of embryological develpoment

centromere

part of the chromosomes where the chromatids are joined together

centriole

in animal cells, a cytoplasmic organelle that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproduction

chromatid

one of the two strands that make up chromosomes

chromatin

the coils of DNA and protein that condense to form chromosomes

chromosome

distinct wormlike structures formed from chromatin during cell reprduction

crossing-over

an exchange of chromosomal material between homologus pairs

cytokenesis

cytoplasmic divison that follows division of the nucleus

diploid

having two of each chromosome

DNA replication

the process of doubling the DNA that occurs before mitosis

germ cells

the only cells that can undergo miosis, found in sex organs

haploid

half the number of diploid chromosomes

homologous pair

in diploid cells, a pair of identical chromosomes

meiosis

cell division to produce sex cells

metaphase

the stage of mitosis where duplicated chromosomes line up along the center of the mitotic spindle

microtubules

tiny tubes that make up most of a cell's cytoskeleton

mitosis

dupication and division of chromosomesand nucleus during cell reproduction

oogenesis

the meiotic process that results in the formation of eggs

ovum

one egg

polyploid

having more than the diploid number of chromosomes

prophase

the first stage of mitosis when chromosomes form chromatin and the nuclear membrane is absorbed

reduction division

cell division that occurs in meiosis and results in haploid cells

sexual reproduction

reproduction requiring two parents

somatic cells

body cells, (cells other than germ cells)

spermatogenesis

the meiotic process that results in the formation of sperm cells

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