each kidney contains about ___ nephrons
cup-shaped extensions of the pelvis
RBCs in the urine due to trauma or infection
what are functions of the kidney?
manufacture urine, convert vitamin D from its inactive to its active form, dispose of metabolic waste products, regulate blood volume
outer, lighter region of the kidney
what is the pigment that gives urine its characteristic yellow color?
darker, reddish-brown internal area of the kidney
the average adult bladder is moderately full with ____ of urine within it
the portion of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is
glomerular (bowman's) capsule
what is the medial indentation of the kidney where several structures such as the ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the kidney called
what are the tiny filtering structures of the kidneys called?
the lumen surfaces of the tubule cells within the proximal convoluted tubule are covered with what?
nitrogenous waste products such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine are what?
excreted from the body
a person with arterial blood pH above 7.45 is said to have what?
a vegetarian diet tends to make their urine more ____, while a high protein diet makes urine more ____.
basic (alkaline); acidic
what is often the final outcome of the urinary system during the aging process?
glucose in the urine due to diabetes mellitus
vessels supplying each kidney with blood to be filtered
cortex-like extensions that separate the pyramids
the bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of
triangular regions with a striped appearance
hemoglobin in the urine due to hemolytic anemia or a transfusion reaction
blood proteins and blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane and should not be found in the filtrate, the urine or both?
the average output of urine for a normal, healthy adult is
control of the voluntary urethral sphincter in normal children is tied to
nervous system development
pus containing WBCs and bacteria in the urine due to urinary tract infection
the chemical buffer system that includes carbonic acid and its salt, which ties up the H+ released by strong acids is called
bicarbonate buffer system
the triangular regions of the kidneys that are striped in appearance and separated by the renal columns are the
each kidney is surrounded and protected by its
in contrasting urine and filtrate by the time it reaches the collecting ducts, it could be said that:
filtrate contains almost everything that blood plasma does, unlike urine
the main hormone that acts on the kidneys to regulate sodium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid is
when carbon dioxide enters the blood from tissue cells, it is converted to ____ for transport within blood plasma
the most potent of all mechanisms and substances that the body uses to regulate blood pH are
proteins in the urine due to pregnancy or excessive exercise
muscular sac suitable for temporary urine storage
the voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscle at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor is called the
external urethral sphincter
transports urine and sperm in males
the process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or
enlargement of the prostate that surrounds the neck of the bladder in adult men is called ____, which may cause voiding difficulty
in one 24 hour period, the kidneys of an average sized healthy adult filters approximately ____ through their glomeruli into the tubules
150 - 180 liters of blood plasma
urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the
from childhood through late middle age, one of the most common bacteria to infect and inflame the urinary tract and cause urethritis and cystitis is
bile pigment in the urine due to hepatitis
what are the organs found in the urinary system?
kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
as venous blood is drained from the kidney, which path does it follow
cortical radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobular veins, renal vein
the enlarged, cup-shaped closed end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is called
bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule)
in males, this organ is surrounded by the prostate
starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
Where are most nephrons located?
the non-selective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called
which one of the following is NOT a substance typically reabsorbed by the tubules under normal healthy conditions
urea, ammonia, creatine
what are characteristics of urine under normal healthy conditions
aromatic, acidic, sterile, yellow
what is normally found in urine
sodium and potassium ions, urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonia
the presence of pus in urine is called
the tube connecting the renal hilus of the kidney to the bladder is the
inflammation of this organ is called cystitis
tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder
contains an area called the trigone formed by the openings of the ureters and urethra
a simple rule concerning water and electrolyte regulation is
water passively follows salt
the proper pH for the blood is
7.35 - 7.45
the degenerative condition in which blister-like sacs (cysts) containing urine form on the kidneys and obstruct urine drainage is called
flat, basin-like cavity medial to the hilus of the kidney
hypospadias is a condition of male children that involves
opening of the urethra on the ventral surface of the penis