German Republic of 1919-1933, named so because its constitution was drawn up in Weimar.
Those who believed in achieving socialism through democratic means.
Translated as "My Struggle" or "My Battle." A book written by Adolf Hitler that contains autobiographical elements and also details his political philosophy and his plan for German conquest.
A system of government that is centralized, dictatorial, and requires complete obedience to the state.
(1929) A treaty signed in the Lateran Palace between the kingdom of Italy (represented by Mussolini) and the Holy See (represented by Pope Pius XI), which recognized the papal state as fully sovereign and independent under the name Vatican City.
An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.
A science that involves enhancing human traits through the process of selective breeding.
Soviet 5 Year Plan
A series of nation-wide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union.
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with the Soviet 5 Year Plan.
Consolidating small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government.
A peasant in Russia wealthy enough to own a farm and hire labor. They resisted Stalin's forced collectivization, but millions were arrested, exiled, or killed.
(1937-1938) A series of campaigns of political repression and murder in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin.
Fascist paramilitary groups under Mussolini in Italy under during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II.
Prejudice and/or hatred of Jews.
Adolf Hitler's title as chancellor and head of state in Germany.
Nazis' private army used by Hitler to terrorize communists, Socialists, and trade union workers, especially the Jews
The German secret police under Nazi rule. It ruthlessly suppressed opposition to the Nazis in Germany and occupied Europe and sent Jews and others to concentration camps. From 1936 it was headed by Heinrich Himmler.
Codename for the German invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. This made USSR join the Allies.
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union. Saw as an inslut to Stalin since the city was named after him.
When British and US air force dropped bombs in Dresden, Germany in February of 1945.
General Erwin Rommel
German general who took territory in North Africa.
The headquarters controlling the German Nazis in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign.
When Nazis destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews on November 9th, 1938. Called "Night of Broken Glass"
The Final Solution
The German Nazi's plan to get rid of the Jews.
The restrictions or laws put against the Jews.
Mobile SS Nazi units killing Jews and other groups.
The gas that was used to kill Jews inside the gas chambers.
The killing of a racial group
Dr. Joseph Mengele
Doctor who conducted experiments on Jews at Auschwitz.
Mass Murder of 6 Million Jews and other groups by the Nazis.
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. This caused US to join the war.
The Name for the Soviet army.
Battle of Midway
US naval battle victory over Japan in June of 1942.
Battle of El Alamein
British victory over German/Italian troops in 1942 that stopped the Axis from going into North Africa.
the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demonds of)
a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism
a provision in a law that confers on appropriate officials the power to implement or enforce the law
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Rome Berlin axis
The alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)
Nazi soviet non aggression pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground
fight a quick and surprising war
new French government formed that was pretty much an acceptance of defeat, formed by Petain, it was ruled by the Nazis who were progressively taking over Europe
Germany, Italy, Japan
a Nazi concentration camp for Jews in southwestern Poland during World War II
Evacuation at dunkirk
week-long rescue, under artillery barrage and air attack,of 340,000 uK and French soldiers
Charles de gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Operation sea lion
name for Hitler's plan to invade Britain by both air and sea
Royal air force
the airforce of Great Britain
Battle of britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
the German airforce
General Bernard Montgomery
British field marshal and one of the outstanding Allied commanders in World War II.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. Had been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe.
Nazi German official who was Heinrich Himmler's chief lieutenant in the Schutzstaffel, the paramilitary corps commonly known as the SS. He played a key role in organizing the Holocaust during the opening years of World War II.
Meeting of Nazi officials on January 20, 1942, in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to plan the "final solution".
"The Big Three"
A group of leaders (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin) who met between 1943 and 1945 to coordinate attacks on Germany and Japan. Then, to discuss plans for postwar Europe and settlement of Germany. After the war, their armies occupied Germany, each with a separate zone, although governed as a single economic unit.
Meeting during World War II in Casablanca, Morocco, between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and their respective military chiefs and aides, who planned future global military strategy for the western Allies. Though invited, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin declined to attend.
Meeting between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in Tehrān during World War II. The chief discussion centred on the opening of a "second front" in western Europe.
Victorious invasion led by Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy (June 6th 1944) the battle was the turing point of WWII, first time allied forces successfully set foot in Europe.
General George Patton
U.S. Army officer who was an outstanding practitioner of mobile tank warfare in the European and Mediterranean theatres during World War II. His strict discipline, toughness, and self-sacrifice elicited exceptional pride within his ranks, and the general was colourfully referred to as "Old Blood-and-Guts" by his men.
Battle of the Bulge
Last major German offensive on the Western Front during World War II; an unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory. The name Battle of the Bulge was appropriated from Winston Churchill's optimistic description (May 1940) of the resistance that he mistakenly supposed was being offered to the Germans' breakthrough in that area just before the Anglo-French collapse. The "bulge" refers to the wedge that the Germans drove into the Allied lines.
Major World War II conference of the three chief Allied leaders, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, which met at Yalta in the Crimea to plan the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany.
Generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas, but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.
Date when the World War II Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. The formal surrender of the occupying German forces in the Channel Islands was not until 9 May 1945.
September 2, 1945
Surrender of the Empire of Japan, brought the hostilities of World War II to an end.
British Labour Party leader (1935-55) and prime minister (1945-51). He presided over the establishment of the welfare state in Great Britain and the granting of independence to India, the most important step in the conversion of the British Empire into the Commonwealth of Nations. He was perhaps the leading Labour politician of the 20th century.
Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology. The program of denazification was launched after the end of the Second World War and was solidified by the Potsdam Agreement.
Series of trials held in Nürnberg, Ger., (1945-46) in which former Nazi leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The indictment lodged against them contained four counts:  crimes against peace,  crimes against humanity,  war crimes, and  "a common plan or conspiracy to commit" the criminal acts listed in the first three counts.
War Crimes Tribunals
International war crimes tribunals are courts of law established to try individuals accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Despite the often heinous nature of the crimes that individuals commit during intractable conflicts, including genocide, torture, and rape, it has become common practice to offer the accused an opportunity to explain his or her actions in front of the victims and their families, as well as the media.