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How did medieval townspeople make their living?

by making and trading goods

Who still officially controlled towns at first?

manor lords

What were two ways that towns won self-government from manor lords?

peacefully and through violence

What is a charter?

a written statement of rights

Name the four basic rights eventually gained by townspeople throughout Europe.

freedom, exemption, town justice, and commercial privileges

Explain the right of freedom gained by European towns.

Anyone who lived in a town for a year and a day became free. This included serfs who escaped from a manor to a town.

Explain the right of exemption gained by European towns.

Townspeople won the right of being exempt from ever having to work on the manor.

Explain the right of town justice gained by European towns.

Towns had their own courts. Leading citizens tried cases involving townspeople.

Explain the commercial privileges gained by European towns.

Townspeople could sell goods freely in the town market. They could also charge tolls to outsiders who wanted to trade there.

As time passed, merchants and workers in towns began to unite in associations called _____.

guilds

Name the two types of guilds.

merchant guilds and craft guilds

What main right did a town's merchant guild have?

the sole right to trade there

What did merchants from other towns or nations have to do in order to trade in a particular town?

They had to pay a fee.

Name three ways that merchant guild members helped each other and members' families.

Guilds looked after members who were in trouble, made loans to members, and, when guild members died, aided their widows and children.

For what four things did craft guilds set rules?

wages, hours, working conditions, and quality of work

What two things did craft guilds do for members?

Guilds looked after ill members and those who could no longer work and controlled the training of skilled workers.

What were members of a guild sometimes called?

confraternities

What three titles did a guild member hold over his career?

apprentice, journeyman, and master

Who housed, fed, clothed, and trained an apprentice?

a master worker

Who paid for an apprentice's lodging, food, clothes, and training?

the apprentice's parents

How long did apprentice training normally take?

5-9 years

Was an apprentice paid?

No

Could an apprentice get married during his training?

No

Was a journeyman paid?

Yes

What set apart a journeyman from a master worker?

A journeyman had yet to produce a masterpiece of his craft. He also did not have his own shop.

How did a journeyman become a master worker?

He created a masterpiece. If masters of the guild approved his masterpiece, the journeyman could open his own shop.

Did girls ever serve as apprentices?

Yes

What was the class between nobles and peasants called?

the middle class

What types of people belonged to the medieval middle class?

towns' guild members

Did the middle class favor kings or nobles as a government?

kings

Why did the middle class favor kings over nobles?

They felt that kings could provide stable governments that would protect trade, business, and property.

Did members of the middle class ever earn government jobs?

Yes

Kings looked to the middle class for _____.

advice

In the Middle Ages, most northern and western European cities had fewer than how many people?

2,000

In the 1200s, about how many people lived in Paris?

150,000

In the 1200s, about how many people lived in growing commercial cities like London, Ghent, and Bruges?

40,000 each

True/False: Towns worsened the living conditions of serfs.

False

Name three ways that towns improved serfs' lives.

Some serfs escaped to towns to gain freedom. Others were pushed off the land as farming methods changed and moved to cities to find jobs. Serfs who stayed on the manors sold their crops in town markets and paid the lord with money rather than with labor.

True/False: Medieval cities were dark, unsafe, dirty, and unhealthy.

True

True/False: Medieval cities had streetlights.

False

In medieval cities, where was waste dumped?

into open gutters

In what year did the Black Death begin?

1337

Where did the plague start?

Asia

How did the plague spread through Europe?

It spread along busy trade routes and entered ports by way of trading ships. Black rats on the ships carried the disease; the plague was spread to people by bites from fleas on the rats.

About how many Europeans died from the Black Death?

25 million

What fraction of Europe's population died from the plague?

one-third

Through what city did the Black Death enter Europe?

Constantinople

The first places in Europe to become infected with the plague were often _____ or _____.

along the coast; nearest to the Eurasian Steppes

In some big towns and cities, what fraction of the population died from the plague?

four-fifths

Name five changes in Europe caused by the Black Death.

People's faith in God was shaken. The church lost some power and importance. Relations between the upper and lower classes changed. Workers, now in short supply, demanded higher wages. In several European countries, peasants staged uprisings.

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