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The pathway of bile from the bile canaliculus to the gallbladder is
-bile ductile > hepatic duct > common hepatic duct > cystic duct
-bile ductile > hepatic duct > cystic duct > bile duct

bile ductile > hepatic duct > common hepatic duct > cystic duct

Billy hates combing ducks.

The gastroileal reflex relaxes the ileocecal valve when the stomach
is full of food.

true

The external anal sphincter allows for voluntary control over the time
of defecation.

true

Digestive enzymes digest each other, allowing the amino acids to be
absorbed and reused.

true

There are normally 32 teeth in the maxilla and 32 in the mandible.

false

A high-fat meal remains in the stomach longer than a high carbohydrate
meal.

true

The intestinal crypts contain chief cells, parietal cells, and G cells.

false

Positive feedback is important in the production of pepsin in the stomach

true

Due to postmortem shrinkage, the small intestine is shorter in a cadaver
than it is in a living person.

false

There are no gastric glands in the fundic stomach.

false

The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon into the duodenum.

false

The stomach lining is so well produced by mucus and tight junctions
that its epithelial cells die at a very slow rate.

false

Ingested food raises the pH of the stomach contents.

true

The stomach secretes gastrin when its internal pH rises.

true

The hormone secretin stimulates the stomach to secrete acid and enzymes

false

Chylomicrons are produced by the epithelial cells of the small intestine.

true

All of the following except ____ contribute to the large surface area
available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
-villi
-rugae

rugae

Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract.
Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?
(lamp, mm's, sub, me, ser)

lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

Which of the following cells are not found in the gastric glands?
chief cells
goblet cells
parietal cells

goblet cells

The swallowing center is located in
the brainstem
the enteric nervous system

the brainstem

All of the following glands secrete only mucus, except the
-pyloric glands
-duodenal glands
-cardiac glands
-gastric glands

gastric glands

An active transport pump called H+-K ATPase is essential for
-neutralizing stomach acid as it enters the duodenum
-the secretion of stomach acid

the secretion of stomach acid

Bacteria, destroying macrophages are found in sinusoids of the
-liver
-pancreas
-appendix

liver

Vitamin B12, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires
____ for its absorption.
intrinsic factor
hydrochloric acid

intrinsic factor

Chylomicrons are produced in
-the epithelial cells of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
-the lymph, as fats are absorbed

the epithelial cells of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed

The enterogastric reflex serves to
-stimulate intestinal motility when there is food in the stomach
-inhibit gastric motility when there is chime in the small intestine
-relax the ileocecal valve when chime is on its way to the colon

inhibit gastric motility when there is chime in the small intestine

The release of bile into the duodenum is controlled by the
-hepatopancreatic sphincter
-gastroesophageal sphincter

hepatopancreatic sphincter

The falciform ligament
-attaches the liver to the diaphragm
-attaches the liver to the abdominal wall

attaches the liver to the abdominal wall

A hepatic triad consists of
-the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct
-a bile ductile and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein

a bile ductile and branches of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein

Bile gets its yellow, green color mainly from
cholesterol
bile salts
phopholipids
bilirubin
urobilinogen

bilirubin

Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?
deoxyribonuclease
enterokinase

enterokinase

Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?
triglycerides
glucose
minerals

triglycerides

Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
the brush border of the small intestine
the cytoplasm of the small intestinal cells

the brush border of the small intestine

What are Peyer's patches, and where are they located?
lymphatic follicles of the ileum
lymphatic tissues of the oropharynx

lymphatic follicles of the ileum

Of the following components of bile, only ____ has/have a
digestive function.
bile salts
bilirubin
cholesterol

bile salts

All of the following enzymes digest proteins except
chymotrypsin
carboxypeptidase
ribonuclease

ribonuclease

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone
-insulin
-cholecystokinin
-secretin

cholecystokinin

The function of enterokinase is to
convert pepsinogen to pepsin
convert trypsinogen to trypsin

convert trypsinogen to trypsin

Unlike the small intestine, the large intestine shows pouches called
____ along its length.
haustra
ceca

haustra

Bacteria constitute about ____ of the dry weight of the feces.
14%
30%
55%

30%

The gastrocolic reflex triggers ___ in response to filling of the stomach.
-segmentation contractions
-haustral contractions
-mass movements

mass movements

Dextrinase carries out the final stages in the digestion of
-triglycerides
-polysaccharides

polysaccharides

Cane sugar is digested by
sucrase
sucrose

sucrase

SGLT, an active transport pump of the small intestine, can only
absorb glucose by simultaneously transporting-
-water
-sodium
-potassium

sodium

In addition to active transport, glucose can be absorbed from the
chime by means of-
-facilitated diffusion
-solvent drag

solvent drag

Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?
pepsin
trypsin

pepsin

Lecithin, a phospholipid, prepares fat for enzymatic digestion by breaking
it up into
-fatty acids and glycerol
-high density lipoproteins
-emulsification droplets

emulsification droplets

All of the following nutrients are absorbed by blood capillaries of the
villus except-
-glucose
-cholesterol
-phosphate

cholesterol

The absorption of ___ depends on the presence of vitamin D.
cholesterol
glucose
calcium

calcium

Most of the water entering the digestive tract each day comes from
-gastrointestinal secretions
-metabolic water

gastrointestinal secretions

Which of the following enzymes does not digest any nutrients?
carboxypeptidase
enterokinase
sucrase

enterokinase

All of the following are enzymes except
secretin
trypsin
pepsin

secretin

The enterogastric reflex regulates the ____ phase of gastric activity.
cephalic
colonic
intestinal

intestinal

The small intestine is suspended from the dorsal body wall by
the mesentery
the greater omentum
the lesser omentum

the mesentery

Which one of the following is absorbed without being digested?
cholesterol
sucrose
peptides

cholesterol

Most of the GI tract is composed of a ____ epithelium, while the
oral cavity through the esophagus and lower anal canal are composed
of a ____ epithelium.
-simple columnar; nonkeratinized stratified squamos
-simple columnar; simple squamos

simple columnar; nonkeratinized stratified squamos

This tissue layer consists of a thick layer of loose connective tissue
containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, a nerve plexus, and
in some places, glands that secrete lubricating mucus into the lumen.
-tunica mucosa
-tunica submucosa

tunica submucosa

This is the outer tunic in the oral cavity, pharynx, most of the esophagus,
and the rectum. It is comprised of a fibrous connective tissue layer called the
adventitia
granulose

adventitia

The tunica mucosa contains smooth muscle called the ____, which is
stimulated by the ____ plexus.
muscularis mucosae; submucosal
muscularis mucosae; myenteric

muscularis mucosae; submucosal

The extension of the peritoneum that loosely covers the small intestine
like an apron is the ____, while the extension of the peritoneum that
anchors much of the large intestine is the _____.
lesser omentum; mesentery
greater omentum; mesocolon

greater omentum; mesocolon

Inflammation of the greater or lesser omentum, mesentery, or
mesocolon is called
appendicitis
peritonitis
gastritis

peritonitis

This structure closes off the nasopharynx when you swallow.
vestibule
uvula
frenulum

uvula

The tongue has a ____ epithelium and the site of the taste buds
called ____.
-nonkeratinized stratified squamos; papillae
-nonkerantized stratified squamos; lingual glands

nonkeratinized stratified squamos; papillae

Infants have ___ deciduous teeth, while adults have ___ permanent
teeth.
20; 32
10; 32

20; 32

An individual has an impacted tooth. This tooth is most likely the
first molar
third molar

third molar

The tooth is anchored to alveolar bone by the
periodontal ligament
gingival sulcus

periodontal ligament

Gingivitis is a(n) ___ and is the leading cause of ___ in adults.
tooth decay; tooth aches
gum inflammation; tooth loss

gum inflammation; tooth loss

Most of a tooth consists of a hard, yellowish tissue called ____,
which is covered by a hard layer of calcium phosphate crystals
called _____.
dentin; enamel
cementum; enamel

dentin; enamel

The two living parts of a tooth are the
dentin and enamel
dentin and cementum

dentin and cementum

You were following a molecule of glucose from the artery outside
the tooth to an odontoblast in the dentin. The pathway glucose would
take is
apical foramen > root canal > pulp cavity
apical foramen > pulp cavity > root canal

apical foramen > root canal > pulp cavity

Salivary glands produce ___, which inhibits bacterial growth.
IgF
IgA
IgG

IgA

Lingual lipase and lysozymes are produced by ___ salivary glands.
intrinsic
extrinsic

intrinsic

Mumps are most often caused by a viral infection of the _____
salivary glands.
parotid
intrinsic
extrinsic

parotid

The esophagus pierces through the diaphragm at the _____, and its
submucosa contains ___ glands that secrete mucus.
hiatus; Brunner
hiatus; esophageal
hiatus; goblet

hiatus; esophageal

The tunica muscularis externa of the stomach contains
two layers of smooth muscle
three layers of smooth muscle

three layers of smooth muscle

In the gastric pits, ____ cells secrete HCI and intrinsic factor and _____
cells secrete pepsinogen.
parietal; chief
parietal; enteroendocrine

parietal; chief

Pepsinogen is produced by ___ cells and is activatedy by ___.
-chief; HCI secreted by parietal cells
-chief; carbonic anhydrase secreted by parietal cells

chief; HCI secreted by parietal cells

Pepsin digests ___ to ____.
proteins; peptides
proteins; amino acids

proteins; peptides

The ileocecal valves open in response to
food in the ileum
food in the stomach
food in the large intestine

food in the stomach

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