Is the term 'animal' a universal concept or a cultural concept?
Who came up with the three ideological models: the ecological model, the structural model, and the symbiotic model?
A model where humans reflect the environment only through culture, so nature is culturally constructed. Humans experience life only through culture, therefore the concept of nature is assumed in culture. (Ingold)
A model that is frequently more of a religious point of view, claiming that nature and culture are dichotomies. It's a dual position. (Ingold)
A model saying that nature is more than what we see, but still affects us; nature affords us. (Ingold)
What would you link Ingold's models to?
Social connecting, group identity, sharing intimacy.
What is eating human flesh with more meaning than cannibalism; eat with and the like-->kinship?
An infectious disease that can be transmitted across species (think rabies).
Who can be linked to commensality?
Pertaining to hunting wild animals, hunting being an interaction between humans and animals. Europe/metaphorical system.
A domesticated, behaved animal that has reverted to a wild animal. These animals can can mate with wild animal, subspecies; can go back to wild gene pool.
This type of animal is tolerate to humans for both domesticated and wild animal.
Who can be linked to the terms 'feral' and 'tame'?
Shared by all animals; the ability to feel and express. One of the three soul types.
Who can be linked to the three soul types, including the sensitive soul?
In this process, animal domesticate themselves by association with humans.
Who can be linked to co-evolution?
The state resulting when juvenile characteristics are retained by the adults of a species. (Examples: Smaller, longer ears, curled tails, etc.).
Who can be linked with neoteny?
What is a man-made animal, when animals/plants have been genetically altered as a result with their involvement with humans?
What makes domestication different from co-evolution?
What makes co-evolution different from domestication?
What are these requirements for?
-Must be able to breed in captivity
-Must have a flexible diet and be able to eat less
-Must be able to grow fast
-Must have a tendency not to panic
-Must be a manageable size
-Must have a social hierarchy
-Must have a pleasant disposition (good temper)
What do these describe?
-Primary social value is ownership, inheritance is never a problem.
-Territorial behavior is appropriation/management altering nature other than offered, purpose breeding the way to manage animal
-Socialization is based on specialization of roles, changing of status, access to resources, gender
-Development of "work" and the diminishment of leisure; decrease of leisure time
-Emergence of high levels of social conflict, pastoral are tribes. Conflict on women.
When you do this, you're essentially giving part of yourself to that person in a physical form. You are what you're giving through symbolism.
-You get a gift
-You accept the gift
-You return the favor with an (often better) gift for the giver, and the cycle repeats.
Who can be associated with gifting/the gift metaphor?
Symbol that sums up, expresses, and presents the system for the participants are emotionally charged sacred symbols. Clustered and condensed, cannot be contradictory in paradigmatic relationship with society. Synthesizes a complex system of ideas. Example: Cross, flag.
The symbol that is supposed to mirror or reflect another view of the same thing.
Symbol that provides the means or ways to sort out a complex idea and feeling. Think "in" the culture. Symbols valued for their contribution to the ordering of/or 'sorting out' of experience. A symbol with many layers, not compact like a summarized symbol. You should be able to find many comparisons between the symbol and what's being symbolized.
Who can be linked with summarizing and elaborating symbols?
What theory says that animals do not have souls; rather, they respond by instinct like a machine and hence they are incapable of reasoning and sensation?
Who can be linked to cartesianism?
What do the Mbuti, Waswanipi, and the Pintubi have in common, aside from being included in Ingold's research?
What does it mean when something has made physical contact with another and continues to affect the contacted even after separation? The caster only needs a small part of you to seal a permanent bond using this method.
What does it mean when like produces like? When someone is affected by something bearing their likeness? Imitative magic. Think voodoo dolls.
James G. Frazer
Who can be linked to contagious and sympathetic magic?
What is zoonoses considered as?
What type of anthropomorphism consists of descriptions that use animals to make something more appealing or to conceal true identities (such as fables) or to present literary allegories in works such as Alice and Wonderland? The animal's behavior is not interpreted as biological fact or reality, and as such is essentially harmless.
What type of anthropomorphism takes place when people superimpose their own desires onto animals, such as dressing pets or chimpanzees into human clothes? This type does not recognize the true biological needs and adaptations of the animal, but in this case, animals are essentially being used to portray some symbolic human message and may suffer in the process.
What type of anthropomorphism is the interpretation of an animal's behavior on the basis of surface qualities that are unrelated to what actually produced the behavior? Examples consist of chimps smiling in space, owls' wide-eyed stares of wisdom, and tropical fish 'kissing' to show affection.
What type of anthropomorphism is a circular explanation of an animal's behavior, believing that by naming it something we've actually explained it? An example would be a dog tearing apart garbage because it was left alone, then deeming that it did the act out of 'spite'.
Who can be linked to the four types of anthropomorphism? First name is Randall.
Lockwood's constructive way to anthropomorphize animals that use human powers of observation and knowledge of the entire context of the behavior. "The use of our own personal perspective on what it's like to be a living being of either our own or another species... But the essence of consciousness is using self-knowledge to predict the behavior of others."