Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing.
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production; similar to the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand, but, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time.
A tool developed by John Kay; its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
English railway pioneer who built the first steam powered locomotive (1781-1848)
An English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it
The American inventor who developed the cotton gin, and also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged (1765-1825)
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production; able to make a greater profit with a low cost (1863-1947)
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Laissez Faire Approach
Style of leader or manager who behaves as a non-leader; the individuals and groups are expected to make their own decisions because of a hands-off approach from the leader.
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade; author of Wealth of Nations (1723-1790)
Philosophy that hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively.
British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed (1771-1858)
French sociologist and reformer who hoped to achieve universal harmony by reorganizing society (1772-1837)
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary; author of "The Communist Manifesto" (1848). This work explains historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
City-dwelling middle class, made up of merchants, manufacturers, and professional people such as doctors and lawyers; in Marxist philosophy, owners of property
The lower or working class
Workers who between 1811 and 1816 rioted and destroyed labor-saving textile machinery in the belief that such machinery would diminish employment.
Anti-Corn Law League
1838, established by manufacturers Richard Cobden and John Bright; formed to help workers by lowering bread prices; composed of members of the middle class who wanted to open Britain up to free trade.
Laws which forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
British Prime Minister who extended the vote to the rich middle class in order to broaden the political base of the conservative party