history 102 final exam

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40 terms

Provisional Government

..., The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.

Nicholas II

the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution

Alexander Kerensky

Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.

Vladimir I. Lenin

Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.

Joseph stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953) name means man of steel

Stalinism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) revolution from above

three pillars

collectivization of agriculture-The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms
industrialization-

class war/terror

a

The Soviet secret police

gulag

was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems.[1] While the camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners, large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment. The Gulag is recognized as a major instrument of political repression in the Soviet Union.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Black Shirts

supporters of mussolini, broke up socialist rallies, smashed leftists presses and attacked farmer's cooperatives

fascism

a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism),
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition

March on Rome

Event in 1922 that displaces King Victor Emmaneul and establishes Mussolini as leader of Italy, A strike "led" by Mussolini (who was no where to be found during this March) in which 30,000 or so Blackshirts marched to Rome and Mussolini was legally put into power

Weimar Government

refers to the German government that was formed after Germany's defeat in WWI, Government that the US helped set up in Germany after WWI. It was a democratic government with a constitution that gave women the right to vote and had a bill of rights. However, the Reichstag (congress) is leftist (communist) and that was much more appealing to starving people.

adolf hitler

German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Munich Beer Hall Putsch

1923, immitating Mussolini's March On Rome and in wake of Ruhr crisis, Hitler attempted to begin a national revolution in a beer hall in Munich. Police suppressed it and Hitler given a 5 year sentence. Judges quite lenient. Served only 1 year. Wrote Mein Kampt (My Struggle) while in prison. This book was a bitter stream of racism, nationalism, collectivist theories of history, Jew-baiting, and political commentary. This book, plus the trial itself, made Hitler famous. General Ludendorff (WW I) even supported him. However, his Nazi party lost support as the economy began to recover in 1924. MIGHT BE ARGUED THAT IF THE RECESSION HAD NOT OCCURED AT END OF DECADE, THE NAZIS MIGHT NEVER HAVE COME TO POWER.

Night of the Long Knives

June, 30, 1934. On this night, Hitler sent his elite guards (Schutzstaffel/ SS/ black shirts) to kill the Storm Troopers, led by Ernst Röhm, and other non-Nazi political opponents.`

Nuremburg Laws

Laws that classified a jew as someone having one or more jewish grandparent, 1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood

Triumph of the Will

This Nazi propaganda film was created in 1936 by Leni Riefenstahl to show the might of the Nazi party at a rally in Nuremberg.

Gleichschaltung

Hitler's technique of using Nazi-controlled associations, clubs, and organizations to coordinate his revolutionary activities., plan for Hilter to gain power, 1. make communism illegal, 2. all political parties illegal exept Nazis, 3. get rid of Jews and democracy

Mein Kampf

'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession

national socialism

"Nazism" refers to the ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Workers' Party under Adolf Hitler, and the policies adopted by the dictatorial government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945

Kristallnacht

Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish propertys

Lebensraum

Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

appeasement

policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory.

Three World Order

Three World Order established during the Cold War
1st world: Western; US
2nd world: Soviet Union
3rd world: Everything Else

the bloodlands

is a book written by Timothy D. Snyder, first published by Basic Books on October 28, 2010. The book is about the mass killing of an estimated 14 million non-combatants by the regimes of Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union and Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany between the years 1933 and 1945 in a region which comprised what is modern-day Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and the Baltic states. Snyder finds similarities between the two totalitarian regimes, and many forgotten or misremembered parts of the history, such as the fact that most of the victims of the two regimes died outside their respective concentration camps.[1]

Blitzkrieg

"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

Einsatzgruppen

Nazi strike forces that killed innocent Jews with their infamous "death squads"

the holocaust

The Holocaust took place in Europe between 1933 and 1945. Six million Jews were systematically and brutally murdered by the Nazis and their collaberators. Miliions of non-Jews, including Roma and Sinti(Gypsies), Serbs, political dissidents, people with disabilities, homosexuals and Jehova's Witnesses, were also persecuted by the Nazis.

the final solution

The Nazi cover-up name for the plan to annihilate all of the Jews

island hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan., WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights (816), Indian statesman who was the founder of Pakistan as a Muslim state (1876-1948)

Jawaharlal Nehru

Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964)., Indian statesman and leader with Gandhi in the struggle for home rule national id over religious id india is one state not many

pakistan

a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976), This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.

The Long March

mao zedong and 100,000 of his followers marched away from the Guomundang (national party)...this was a great victory for communists in china. it was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, was on the brink of annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province. The Communists, under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north, which reportedly traversed some 12,500 kilometers (8,000 miles) over 370 days.[1] The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west, then north, to Shaanxi.

The Great Leap Forward

In 1958 Zedong launched a program; he urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output and created communes; Rural communes set up "backyard" industries to produce steel; this program failed b/c "backyards" produced low-quality, communes had slow food output, bad weather, and a famine. What is this program called?

Backyard Factories

One of Mao's goals during the Great Leap Forward was for China to surpass Britain in steel production in less than five years. Some scholars claim Mao was inspired by the factories he saw in the Soviet Union, and the Great Leap Forward was an attempt by Mao to overtake the Soviet Union so that he could establish himself as leader of the world Communist movement. Mao hoped to achieve this by redistributed labor from large industrial complexes to small backyard factories modeled after 8th century smelters, where peasants could melt down their cooking pots to make high-grade steel. Mao's followers were expected to chant, "Long live the people's communes!" and "Strive to complete and surpass the production responsibility of 12 million tons of steel!"

The Nationalists

the people who believed in making China a unified nation and ending foreign domination

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