Endocrine System; The Cell; Intro to Evolution; Invertebrate Diversity FINAL

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Hypothalamus

"Master Gland"
oDeals with external & internal info
oPituitary hormone regulation
oBrain

Thyroid

hormones affect tissues

Parathyroid

calcium regulation

Thymus

Puberty
Immune System

Adrenals

body preservation
salt conservation
stress response

Pancreas

Nutrient Absorption

Negative Feedback

Hypothalamus produces TRH, which stimulates the AP, which produces TSH, which stimulates the Thyroid gland itself, which produces T4. Then it tells the hypothalamus to stop until levels are back to normal.

Positive Feedback

• Positive Feedback: A woman goes into labor. The PP produces oxytocin, which stimulates labor. It tells the PP to produce more oxytocin to push the baby out.

Cell Theory

all living things are composed of cells
all cells come from other cells

Endosymbiont Theory

chloroplasts & mitochondria were small prokaryotes that began living in larger cells
C & M have their own DNA & Ribosomes

Prokaryotic Cells

Before the Nucleus
Protist, Fungi, Animals, Plants

Eukaryotic Cells

True Nucleus
Membrane-Enclosed Nucleus
Bacteria & Archaea

Plant Cells

Chloroplasts
Cell Wall

Animal Cells

Lysosomes
Centrioles

Artificial Selection

humans modify species by selecting/breeding individuals with desired traits

Natural Selection

Variation: in populations species there is variation in inherited traits
Species are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can handle
Species that have a higher survival rate will produce more offspring
The unequal distribution of offspring results in favorable traits spreading through the population

Major Types of Evidence for Evolution

biogeography
fossil record
gene trees

Biogeography

geographic distribution of species
Fixity of Species: similar islands, similar habitants
Evolutionary Theory: Islands should have similar habitants as mainland

General Characteristics of Animals

Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Heterotrophic
Ingest nutrients
Most have Muscles/Nerves
Most diploid
Most reproduce sexually

Porifera

Radial/No

Cnidarians

Radial
2 Tissues
No
Simple nerves, Contractile Tissue

Flatworms

Bilateral
3 tissues
No
Nerves

Nematodes

Bilateral
3 Tissues
Pseudocoelom
Nerves

Molluscs

Bilateral
3 Tissues
Truecoelom
Nerves

Annelids

Bilateral
3 Tissues
Truecoelom
Nerves

Arthropods

Bilateral
3 Tissues
Truecoelom
Nerves

Echinoderms

Radial as adults
3 Tissues
Truecoelom
Nerves

Chordates

None
3 Tissues
Truecoelom
Nerves

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