A word specifically design for the laboratory to donate infectious material or agents that present a risk or even potential risk to the health of humans.
Components of a microscope
Major areas of laboratory medicine
Accuracy and Precision
Specificity and Sensitivity
A range of values that includes 95% of the test results for a healthy reference population.
Different categories that affect the reference ranges
1) Blood- Whole blood, serum/plasma
5) Other body fluids- Stool, CSF, Joint/synovial, Serous fluids (pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal), Seminal fluid
1) Phlebotomy- Venipuncture, capillary blood collection
2) Urine- Routine, clean catch, 24hr
3) Cultures/swabs- Throat, wound, blood; through phlebotomy
4) Surgery- Tissue samples, wound cultures
5) Other body fluids- Stool (not from toilet), CSF; syringe draw (sterile), joint/synovial; syringe draw, serous fluids; syringe draw/surgery, seminal fluid; NOT ASSISTED
Examination of the cellular elements of blood and also clotting factors.
Basic blood cell types
1) Erythrocytes or RBCs
2) Leukocytes or WBCs
3) Thrombocytes or Platelets
Tests for RBCs
1) RBC count-
2) Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
3) Hemoglobin determination
4)*Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
5) Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
6) Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Functions of the RBCs
Morphology (variations) of RBCs
1) Color- Normochromia (normal), Hypochromia (lighter), Polychromatophilia (shades of red)
2) Size (Anisocytosis)- Macrocytosis, Microcytosis
3) Shape (Poikilocytosis)-
4) Presence of artifacts & abnormal distribution patterns- *Rouleaux formation, Agglutination
5) Presence of nucleated red cells
6) Platelet count (est.)- Adequate, decreased, and increased. 6-20 platelets per field for normal.
Test for WBCs
1) Total WBC count- Determines the # of WBCs per cubic mm of blood. Abnormal counts:
*Leukocytosis- Increased WBCs
*Leukopenia- Decreased WBCs
2)*WBC differential count (on a peripheral blood smear)- Determines presence/numbers of different WBCs; Expressed as a percentage; Helps determine the type of infection.
Functions of WBCs
Different WBCs types on a peripheral smear
2) Neutrophilic Band
Normal parameters of a Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Other Hematological tests
Other Coagulapathy tests
Basic principles of Complement
ABO/Rh group system
A substance that, when introduced into an individual's body is recognized as foreign by an individual's immune system and causes a detectable reaction.
Specific defensive proteins produced when an antigen stimulates individual cells. Its primary function in the body's defense is to combine with antigens, they are produced by the host in response to the presence of an antigen and are capable of reacting with antigens in some detectable way.
Eldon Card Blood Typing
I easy to use home test to test your blood type
*Categories of typically measured substances in serum
1)*Substances normally present with a function in the circulation
2)*Metabolites (nonfuctioning waste products in the process of being cleared)
3)*Substances released from cells as a result of cell damage and abnormal permeability or abnormal cellular proliferation (usually proteins/enzymes)
4)*Drugs and toxic substances
Categories of typically measured substances in urine
Common Laboratory Chemical test
Clinical aspects of Microbiology
Purpose of Gram Stain
Procedures of Gram Stain
Common bacterial morphologies
Classes of antibodies associated with pathogenic microbes
Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Card Test
Beta hCG Test (pregnancy test)
Properly attain a urine specimen
Urine Macroscopic Examination
1) Color- Normal color varies from straw to amber. Diluted urine is generally pale and concentrated tends to be darker.
2) Odor- Normal has a faint aromatic smell because of some volatile acids. Standing urine has ammonial odor, caused by the breakdown of urea by bacteria to from ammonia.
3) Clarity/Appearance- Clear, hazy, cloudy, turbid (can't read)
4) Amount/Specific Gravity- Measurement of the amount of dissolved substances in a solution.
Chemical Urinalysis (dipstick) Test
-Chemically impregnated absorbent pads
-Color-producing chemical reaction
-Comparison chart located on bottle
Can test for; pH, protein, glucose, ketones, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocytes, and specific gravity
Common Formed Elements in Urine
1) Leukocytes- infection
2) Erythrocytes- refer
3) Epithelial cells- Normal
4) Cast- (not good, refer)
5) Crystals- Acidic, alkaline, drug, metabolic
9) Parasites- T. vaginalis
10) Contaminates- Starch, fecal, fibers, glass
Outlined by OSHA, all human blood and certain other body fluids are treated as if they are infected with a blood-borne pathogen.
1) Gloves worn and proper hand washing
2) Gloves will be disposed after each pt
3) Needles/sharps will be handles with extreme caution and disposed into the biohazard sharps containers
4) Only a small amount of blood is allowed in the general waste (i.e. 2x2 gauze for extraction sites)
5) Large amounts of blood goes into the biohazard waste container and is treated as infectious.
6) Clean work station every day or as needed.
Collection Methods for Phlebotomy
2)Capillary Blood Collection; Adult- finger, Newborn- heel
Collection Methods for Urine
1) Random- Easy to do
2) First Morning- Concentrated
3) Mid-stream Clean Catch- Culture and sensitivity
4) 24 hour
Different Urine colors
-Red, abnormal color
-Dark orange; caused by Pyridium (a topical analgesic for UTI)
The density of a solution compared to an equal volume of distilled water.
Urine Specific Gravity
Normally ranges from 1.015 to 1.030 during a 24 hour period
Urinalysis Reagent Stripes
-A chemically impregnated absorbent pads attached to a plastic stripe.
-Color producing chemical reaction
-Comparison chart located on bottle
-Poor man's chem panel
Chemical Characteristics in Urine
pH, protein, glucose, ketones, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocytes, and specific gravity.
Semi-quantitative Value of Trace in Urinalysis Reagent Stripes
1+, 2+, 3+, or 4+ can be reported
Leukocytes in Urine
Sign of infection
Erythrocytes in Urine
Refer pt to somebody higher than your pay grade.
Casts in Urine
Abnormal, refer pt to someone higher
Epithelial Cells in Urine