African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) and advocated mass migration of African Americans
"back to Africa". Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
A member of the Nation of Islam; he became an influential spokesman. He did NOT advocate violence, but believed people had the right to defend themselves. He orignally promoted the segregation of whites from blacks. He was assassinated by black gunmen believed to be rivals in the Nation of Islam in New York.
Brown v Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Black Panther Party Platform
1.We want power to determine the destiny of our Black community.
2.We want full employment for our people.
3.We want an end to the robbery by the White man of our Black community.
4.We want decent housing fit for the shelter of human beings.
5.We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of American society.
6.We want all Black men to be exempt from military service.
7.We want an immediate end to police brutality.
8.Freedom for all black men held in prisons and jails.
9.We want all Black people when brought to trial, to be tried by a jury of their peers.
10.We want land grant housing, education, clothing, justice, and peace.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization founded after WWII by James Farmer. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
SNCC was a student based civil rights organization. Their actions, such as sit-ins, helped pass civil right laws.
August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Sparked riots in other cities like Detroit and Chicago.
a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority
separation of the races
the act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races
fair treatment of all people in a society
First black senior to successfully graduate Central High. One of the little rock nine
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement
Brown vs Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Central High School
The site of forced school desegregation during the American Civil Rights Movement. Nine black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, were denied entrance to the school in defiance of the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling ordering integration of public schools.
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement.
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, 11 months after rosa parks the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
de facto segregation
segregation by tradition
Jim crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights. Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government.