2 types of anxiety
Situational and trait
What is Stage fright?
nervousness and anxiety you get when it comes to talking in front of a crowd
power of visualization
create a mental blueprint of success
what is listening?
physiological process that involves paying close attention to, and making sense of what is heard
research shows that most listeners remember what % of a message?
what are the four types of listening?
appreciation, comprehensive, empathetic, and critical
what 2 types of listening are most closely related to to critical thinking?
comprehensive and critical
1 cause of poor listening:
jumping to conclusions
A commemorative speech is
an address of praise and or celebration; tribute to a person, group, and institute, or idea; goal is to rouse sentiments and stir emotions; fundamental purpose is to inspire the audience
all words have two meanings:
denotative (literal meaning) and connotative (figurative meaning)
4 ways public speakers need to use language clearly:
what is parallelism?
similar arrangement of words or phrases
what are concrete words?
what is linguistic clutter?
habit of using more words than needed to get your message across
what are some demographic traits?
age, gender, race, religion, group membership, education, socio-economical status
what is an audiences disposition toward topic?
knowledge, interest, attitude
what are some situation traits?
size of audience, physical setting of room, disposition toward speaker, disposition toward occasion
specific and credible details are much more convincing than unsupported generalization. T or F?
2 major types of supporting material:
examples have more of an impact on audiences beliefs than any other supporting material. T or F?
3 types of examples
brief, extended, hypothetical
what is the general purpose of an informative speech?
to inform: speaker acts as a teacher
what is the specific purpose of a thesis statement in an informative speech?
indicates precisely what the speaker wants the audience to know or do because of the speech
what is the central statement also known as?
preview statement, or thesis
how many main points should be in a speech?
what are some organizational patterns?
1) chronological order
what are connectives?
words or phrases that join one thought to another and indicate the relationship between them
what are 4 types of connectives?
1) transitions- indicate what speaker finished one thought and moves on to another
2) internal preview
3) internal summary
4) sign post- indicates where speaker is in speech
one objective in a speech introduction is an attention getter. how can you do this?
relate to audience
establishing credibility is another objective in a what part of the speech?
in a conclusion, refer back to intro. why?
it provides sociological unity
what is pitch?
highness or lowness of voice
what is persuasion?
process of creating, reenforcing, or changing peoples beliefs or actions
of all the types of public speaking, persuasion is the most complex or challenging. T or F?
do you have to persuade everybody when giving a speech?
what is the target audience?
part of the audience that the speaker most wants to reach with message
what is the goal of a 'question of fact' persuasive speech?
trying to get the audience to accept your views of the facts
trying to justify your value judgement is one goal in what kind of speech?
what is the goal in a 'question of policy' persuasive speech?
seeking a specific course or courses of action
2 responses to persuasive speech?
passive argument and immediate action
what is the goodwill factor?
keeping your audiences best interest in mind