What is meant by energy metabolism?
extract energy and form it into ATP so cells can use energy
Where does energy metabolism take place?
cytoplasm and mitochondria
Where in the cell is most energy (ATP) produced?
In general, when water soluble vitamins are taken in doses higher than the RDA what happens to the excess?
excreted through urine
What is the common function of most B vitamins?
help extract energy
List the B vitamins.
Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Folate, Cobalimin (B12)
Function of Thiamin B1
coenzymes in energy metabolism
What foods contain B1?
whole grains, enriched grains, pork, legumes, tuna, some fruits
what deficiency comes from not consuming enough B1 in the diet?
Is B1 toxic?
Function of riboflavin B2
coenzymes FAD+ (electron carrier), formation of other vitamins (folate, niacin)
What foods contain B2?
liver, fortified cereals, dairy products, mushrooms, spinach, tomatoes
Deficiency of B1?
ariboflavinosis (affects mouth and eyes)
Function of Niacin B3
coenzymes NAD+ (electron carrier), protein synthesis, DNA maintenance and replications
B3 is found in what foods?
fish, fortified cereals, liver, beef, tomatoes, mushrooms, turkey
Is B3 toxic?
yes, liver damage
Is B2 toxic?
Functions of pyridoxine B6
coenzymes in amino acid metabolism, heme synthesis, synthesis of neurotransmitters (serotonin)
B6 food sources?
fish, garbanzo beans, fortified liver, yogurt, meat, broccoli, banana
small, pale red blood cells
Is B6 toxic?
Function of Folate (folic acid)
coenzyme; single carbon transfer, normal development ; cell division and protein synthesis
Folate is found in what foods?
fortified foods, garbanzo beans and other legumes, spinach, oranges
macrocytic anemia (cells are too large, problem with blood)
is folate toxic?
Is folate a metabolic vitamin?
Functions of cobalimin B12
coupled reactions with folate (homocystein metabolism), energy metabolism, combines with intrinsic factor (stomach produced, need to absorb vitamin B12)
B12 is in what foods?
fortified foods, fish, beef, dairy, shellfish, vegetables, fruits, whole grains
pernicious anemia (very low red blood count), need for healthy blood
Is B12 toxic?
In the United States, which subset of the population may suffer from ariboflavinosis?
Which B vitamin leads to toxicity if taken in large doses?
B3 and B6
A deficiency of thiamin results in what?
beriberi (bones get weak)
How would you best define the term "edema"?
swelling caused by fluid retention (excess fluid is trapped in the body's tissues)
Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disorder resulting from lack of what in the diet?
Which nutrients supply energy (kilocalories) to the body?
If you are diagnosed with macrocytic anemia how are your red blood cells different from regular red blood cells? Which vitamin deficiency is associated with this disorder?
They are larger in size; folate
how is macrocytic anemia different from microcytic hypochromic anemia?
microcytic hypochromic anemia have smaller red blood cells
Which B vitamin is not associated with energy metabolism?
What does the neural tube develop into?
one part will develop into the brain and the rest closes up and forms spinal column
What if the neural tube doesn't close fully?
there is a hole that forms in the spine
what is a defect if a hole forms in the spine due to the neural tube not closing fully?
spina bifida (forms a bubble on their back)
what reduces risk of getting spin bifid a as a baby?
consuming enough folate
Why might vegans be susceptible to a deficiency of vitamin B12?
because that vitamin comes from mainly meats and dairy products
What is the main function of iron in the body?
oxygen transport, enzyme cofactor, good immune function, brain and nerve function
How does the body regulate iron absorption?
hemoglobin absorbs iron and each red blood cell has about 250 million molecules of hemoglobin
What is the percent of iron that is in our blood?
Iron absorption is highly regulated by what?
intestinal cells ("gatekeeper")
If the body iron reserve is low, then what does iron do?
binds to transferrin and is transported in the body
If the body iron reserves are high, what happens?
ferritin is lost with intestinal epithelial cells
what percentage of iron in the body is recycled?
How is iron transported to cells of the liver where is may be stored?
red blood cells
What are the 2 ways that iron is stored?
1. ferritin (intestinal cells)
2. Hemosiderin (stored in liver, bone marrow, skeletal muscle and spleen)
What is the transport protein?
List two organs that store liver
liver and spleen
What dietary sources provide only heme iron?
Heme iron is only found in animal flesh
Which dietary sources provide non-heme iron?
plant sources (green leafy veggies, legumes, mushrooms, fortified cereals) and animal flesh
what vitamin increases bioavailability of iron?
Why does it take a long time before iron deficiency anemia is observed?
because iron deficiency has two steps:
1. Use iron from iron stores (takes many months to use it up, therefore it goes unnoticed)
2. When the iron stores are gone, RBC recycling iron and working with functional iron and are not aware of the deficiency
what does iron deficiency lead to?
What is anemia?
not producing enough hemoglobin, not enough iron to do so
Iron deficiency is the most common deficiency is the USA, male or female is more prone?
Why are women more prone to iron deficiency?
women in the reproductive age, women have menstrual cycle and losing iron, people become vegetarians and not paying attention to iron containing foods, trend is moving away from red meat and consuming more poultry
A deficiency of iron results in poorly formed RBC that are inefficient carriers of oxygen. WHy might this leave an individual feeling fatigued?
low blood level = hematocrit which is a decrease in healthy red blood cells
What is the function of iodine in the body?
component of thyroid hormones (growth, reproduction, energy metabolism)
Where is iodine absorbed?
does iodine circulate in the blood stream?
Where is excess iodine excreted?
In general, what types of foods are good sources of iodine?
saltwater fish (tuna, salmon - not trout to bass), shellfish, noir or other seaweeds, nuts, iodized salts
How is dietary iodine deficiency tracked around the world? Which countries are most at risk?
"Goiter Belt" in the northern US and areas where iodine content of drinking water is naturally low.
What is a reasonably inexpensive way to overcome iodine deficiency?
For blood clots to form, vitamin _____ and the mineral ______ must both be present.
Vitamin k and Calcium
Which fat soluble vitamin is produced by intestinal bacteria?
which fat soluble vitamin is mostly excreted from the body when in excess?
Without this vitamin you would literally bleed to death
Which vitamins and minerals are required for good blood health?
functions of vitamin K
blood clotting, bone formation, ATP
food sources of vitamin K?
green vegetables, fortified cereals, fish, legumes, intestinal bacteria
How is vitamin K lost?
distorted by light and high cooking temperatures
Where is a small reserve of vitamin K located?
What happens with excess vitamin K?
it is broken down and excreted from the body
Deficiency of vitamin K?
Who is at risk for vitamin K deficiency?
individuals with poor fat distribution, drug interaction and newborn babies