Algerian and Vietnam Wars
Algeria: fought between France and Algeria for Algerian independence, Algeria wins. Important war for decolonization from '54-'62 with terrorism and guerilla warfare. Vietnam: civil war between north and south Vietnam with France originally on side of Southern Vietnam, then US took over, while Russia sided with Northern Vietnam. Most of Europe disapproved of this war
India declares itself independent in 1947 after WWII. Shows end of imperialism and loss of British empire...hard to maintain because it was expensive and militarily too weak
Middle East Arab-Israeli conflict
Jewish state of Israel created out of old British colonies in Palestine. many arab countries refuse to accept Israel and attacked it, Israel wins but issue still not resolved. Wars broke out in '56, '67,'73
Women in W. Europe
Work patterns and social expectations of women changed dramatically after WWII; women begin to assume larger economic and political roles.
laborers and students unite all over world to protest against: opposition to Vietnam, civil liberties, anti-racism, pro-feminism, pro-ecological movement, and anti-nuclear weapons. IN FRANCE, it was high point of youth culture—nationwide strike. Broken by de gaulle with promised elections and wage increases
Muslim immigrants in Europe
cause ethnic problems. Many people refuse to accept them into society and they do not adapt to European culture. Led to rise of extremist groups that are anti-muslims as well as Muslim terrorist groups against Europeans.
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. Wanting reform, he renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, pulled troops out of Afghanastan, supported Glasnost, and urged perestroika; but all this failed.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Pope John Paul II
This Polish Pope brought the world's attention to the solidarity movement of the Polish, calling for human rights. He became a hero of the Polish nation.
Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk
Large Polish shipyard located in Gdansk. Solidarity was founded there. Sight of first successful protests led by Lech Walesa.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Solidarity Trade Union
The Soviet Bloc's first independent trade union that was non-communist controlled. Tried to change things using civil resistance. Union was outlawed but the government eventually negotiated with it and later a Solidarity dominated coalition government was put in place.
On 11 February 1981, Jaruzelski was elected to be the Prime Minister of Poland, and became the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers Party on October 18 the same year. He established martial law was in an attempt to suppress the Solidarity movement.
East German dictator from 1971 to 1989 that ruled with an iron fist, secret police and refusal of reforms; in 1989, his economic policies cause a mass East German migration through Hungary to get to West Germany, which caused him to open borders with West Germany
The east german Ministry for State Security. Regarded as one of the most effective, repressive intelligence and secret police agencies in the world.
Fall of the Wall
The removal of the wall that separated East and West Germany in 1989. Symbolized the end of the Cold War.
A peaceful protest by the Czech people that led to the smooth end of communism in Czechoslovakia.
Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936)
In 1990, the nation of Czechoslovakia was divided into 2 republics. Free elections were held, and a slight majority of Slovaks wanted independence. The two independent nations were formed in 1993 (called the Velvet Divorce).
Dictator of Romania; rejected reforms in Eastern Europe; demise occured over a time of about 2 weeks(1989)- began with Timisoara, later bood off stage in middle of speech, he and wife tried to escape but captured by army on Dec. 22, ended with Dec. 25 he & his wife were tried and executed.
Huge state secret police formed by Ceausescu. Bloody and brutal. Killed many in the Romanian Revolution.
This period began with high economic growth and soaring prosperity, but ended with a much weaker Soviet Union facing social, political, and economic stagnation. The average annual income stagnated, because needed economic reforms were never fully carried out.
(president) 40th republican with a strong anti-communist view. influenced fall of communism. talked with gorbachev to end Cold War
Yeltsin vs. Gorbachev
Yeltsin became leader of the new Russian Republic after the collapse of the Soviet Union; Yeltsin opposed Gorbachev and wanted to have open markets and move toward a more democratic design.
Nationalism in the Soviet Union
many different ethnicities in the Soviet union= tensions and people defended their own ethnicity
August '91 coup
Attempt by pro-Soviet members to oust Gorbachev from power.
Treaty of Rome
Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community
European Economic Community or "Common Market"
An economic organization of European states set up by the Treaties of ROME in March 1957. Its member states agreed to coordinate their economic policies, and to establish common policies for agriculture, transport, the movement of capital and labor, the erection of common external tariffs, and the ultimate establishment of political unification.
European Free Trade Association
An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven-i.e., outside the Common Market; formed in 1959.
a treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with it single currency and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment.
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
a common currency introduced to 11 members of the European Union in 1999. In order for Europe to become fully integrated they needed a single currency.
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
people who share a common culture, language, or history
Bosnia secedes and becomes independent in 1992. Bosnian Serbs with support of Milosevic began Ethnic Cleansing, killing Catholic Croats and Muslim Bosnians. Not quite genocide, but close. Serbs began shelling Sarajevo which lasted 3 years. (7,000 muslims illed in UN "Safe Haven" Srebrenica, 1995).
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
1995 peace agreement ending the war over the former Yugoslavia, between Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia
region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999
named after George C. Marshall (the secretary of state who introduced it), provided broad economic aid to European states on the sole condition that they work together for their mutual benefit
advocated a policy of support for "free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures"
(military) containing something or someone
formerly the unit of money in Germany
purpose was to drive the Western powers out of Berlin
(1948) supplied food and fuel to citizens of West Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
West Germany (FRG)
Originally there were 3 sectors (French, British, and US) they all combined to form one democratic sector
East Germany (GDR)
The communist USSR run sector of Germany, smaller than West Germany
leader of German Communist Party and German Democratic Republic
Soviet organization whose purpose was to denounce Marshall Plan aid
(The council of Mutual Assistance) Soviet relations with the states of Eastern Europe, Soviet-dominated
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland with Canada and the US
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
social process of adopting (or being forced to adopt) the policies and practices of Joseph Stalin
Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin (1894-1971)
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
Revolts in E. Europe '53,'56,'68
East Germany '53: There was a general strike in Berlin over working conditions. Squashed by Soviet troops. Over 3 million East Germans fled for the West, where there were promises of capitalism and freedom. '56: Poland. Gomulka tried to reform with liberalization, de-collectivization, and friendlier relationship with the Catholic Church. Since Poland stayed with the Warsaw Pact and kept Soviet control, the reforms were successful. Hungary '56. Nagy, a liberal Communist, tried liberalization, along with democratization, but most importantly withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. This pissed the Soviets off and they sent in tanks to stamp out the revolt. Czechoslovakia '68 Prague Spring. Dubeck attempted liberal reforms such as less repressive police, increased freedom of the press, and legalization of non-Commie political groups. The Soviets and Warsaw Pact invaded and squashed.
separated East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need
W. Germany's economic miracle
used hard work and the Marshall plan to rebuild economy, management and labor work together to avoid social conflict
Britain's Labour reforms
labor party instated cradle-to-the-grave (expensive) welfare state. Nationalized the Bank of England, coal, steel, transportation, and utilities industry
France's Fourth and Fifth Republics
Fourth Republic founded in 1945; General de Gaulle comes back to power at the urging of the French military, establishing France's Fifth Republic.