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Gonads begin to develop

5 to 6 weeks after fertilization

_____ determines whether an organism will be genetically male or female

the sperm

The gene that codes for the testis-determining factor (TDF) is found in or on

the Y chromosome

The penis is homologous to

the clitoris

The _____ is the gonad and the _______ is the gamete

Testis; sperm

When it is cold the _____ contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm

cremaster muscle

The countercurrent heat exchanger that prevents arterial blood from overheating the testes is

the pampiniform plexus of veins

The blood testis barrier

prevents antibodies in the blood from getting to the germ cells

By volume most of the semen is produced in the

seminal vesicles

Why would an enlarged prostate gland interfere with urination

it compresses the urethra

The ______ are the sites of sperm maturation and storage

ductus epididymides

When do the testes start secreting testosterone

in the first trimester of fetal development

Which of the following hormones directly stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics

testosterone

Which of the following is an androgen

testosterone

____ stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete _____

Luteinizing Hormone(LH); testerone

Which hormone suppresses spermatogenesis without affecting testosterone secretion

inhibin

The ______ have no adrogen receptors and do not respond to it

germ cells

Testosterone inhibits

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion

Changes called male climacteric are a consequence of

decreased secretion of testosterone

In the process of sperminogenesis, ______ become______

spermatids; spermatozoa

In meiosis, each parent cell produces

four haploid cells

As a result of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, the final cells produced are called _____ but they and all the stages leading up to them can be called _______

gametes; germ cells

At the end of meiosis I there are ______, whereas at the end of meiosis II there are

two haploid cells; four haploid cells

The most important role of meiosis in sexual reproduction is

that it prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation

At what stage does a developing sperm cell begin to grow a tail

spermatid

Sperm cells get energy to power their movement from _____ contributed by the ______

fructose;seminal vesicles

Male infertility (sterility) refers to

the inability to fertilze an egg

The acrosome contains enzymes used to

penetrate barriers surrounding the ovum

____ have 46 chromosomes whereas _____ have 23

Primary spermatocytes; spermatids

A sperm count lower than _____ million sperm per mL of semen is usually associated with infertility (sterility)

20 to 25

The _____ arteries rhythmically constrict and dilate causing the uterine mucosa to blanch and flush with blood

spiral

After puberty the vaginal lining becomes ______ to ______

stratified squamous epithelium; resist abrasion

The ______ is the site of attachment of the embryo

endometrium

Mammary glands develop within the breast primarily

during pregnancy

Breast size is determined by

the amount of adipose tissue

The earliest sign of puberty in girls is

the onset of breat development

_____ are feminizing hormones

estrogens

_____ act primarily in the uterus

progesterone

The midlife change in estrogen and progesteron is called_____ whereas the cessation of menstruation is called______

climacteric;menopause

The ovum finalizes meiosis

during fertilization

Most ovulation homee test kits measure _____ surge, which happens about 24 hours before ovulation

LH

After expelling the oocyte, the follicle becomes the _____ and secretes______

corpus luteum; estrogen and progesterone

Oogenesis starts

during embryonic development

In the adult ovary, more than 90% of the follicles are found as

primordial follicles

During the follicular phase, granulosa cells secrete _____ which stimulates the secretion of ______

estradiol;LH

Which of these blood hormone levels reaches its maximum during the luteal phase

progesterone

______ inhibits the secretion of ______ during the female sexual cycle.

Estradiol and progesterone; FSH and LH

In early pregnancy _____ stimulates growth of the corpus luteum

human chorionic gonadotropin

The basis of pregnancy test kits is the presence of ______ which is secreted by ______

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); blastocyst and placenta

The basis for contraceptive pills is that they mimic the _____ feedback effect of _______

negative;estrogens and progesterone

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