A specific manufacturing term, sometimes relating to one material group only. E.g. Casting
A process of manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a pattern. Hot or Cold.
A hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw materials. The liquid hardens or sets inside adopting its shape.
A method of shaping an object by pouring a liquid into a mould and letting it harden. The shaped object is called either a cast or a casting.
The interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft. The warp is held taut and in parallel order, typically by means of a loom.
The joining of melting metal by the application of heat such as welding.
Joining of cloth, leather, furs, bark, or other materials, using needle and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human populations and dates back to 30,000 BC and it predates the weaving of cloth.
The act of separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. E.g. Sawing
Powered machines that shape metals and other materials through a variety of cutting or grinding processes to perform shaping and finishing operations that produce precisely dimensioned parts. E.g. turning, shaping and planing, boring, drilling, milling and grinding.
To wear down or rub away by friction, also known as a wasting process because the piece that is removed is usually referred to as 'waste'. E.g. Glasspaper.
A mixture in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together. E.g. Epoxy Resin.
A hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. They are often temporary, in that they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly. E.g. Nut and Bolt.
The process of manufacturing by hand with or without the aid of tools and was a manufacturing technique and common method of manufacture in the pre- industrialized world.
A period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe.
A volume production process involving machines controlled by humans. In other words, machinery is used to carry out some or all of the repetitive tasks in a production process.
The mass-production of a product via a flow line (like a conveyor belt) based on the interchangeability of parts, pre- processing of materials, standardization and work division. Each manufacturing task is divided up into basic stages.
When a product (bespoke) is made by one person to meet the exact wishes of the consumer. E.g. Custom made clothing.
A method of production where a number of components are made all at once. Limited volume production (a set number of items to be produced) such as limited edition guitar.
A method of production in which large numbers of identical products are made using mechanised techniques. The production of large amounts of standardized products on production lines, permitting very high rates of production per worker.
A wide variety of systems and processes that operate with little or no human intervention. In most modern systems, control is exercised by the system itself, through control devices that sense changes and such conditions.
(Computer Aided Design) Use of computer programme such as CorelDraw Google SketchUp to design a product.
(Computer Aided Manufacture) Use of computer programme to manufacture a product. It offers significant advantages over more traditional approaches by controlling manufacturing equipment with computers instead of human operators and is usually associated with the elimination of operator error and the reduction of labour costs.
(Computer Numerically Control)
Using digital information and code from a computer to control a machine. X
Y Z axis.
(Computer Integrated Manufacture) A sophisticated combination of systems including computers, robots and machines that manufacture products. Such as that on an assembly line. The benefits of economy of scale are gained whether the order is for a single item or for thousands.
A system in which goods are made and delivered to order rather than being held in a warehouse. This technique shortens cycle times, decreases the amount of inventory that a company carries, leads to low work-in-process and creates a flexible atmosphere.
A system in which companies carry spare stock in case they need them. Stock would usually consist of main problematic components, components known to need replacing, some will stock components that are very difficult to come by, they are timely to import or manufacture.
Producing goods and services to meet individual customer's needs with near mass production efficiency.
= Fixed cost x Variable Cost
The costs that must be paid out before production starts, for example, the capital cost of equipment and outgoings such as rent and rates, often referred to as overheads. These costs do not change with the level of production and remain the same however many items are produced or consumed.
The costs that vary with output, for example, fuel or raw materials. It includes the material, labour and energy costs that arise as a direct result of the production and are usually directly proportional to the number of items made.
The amount of money that comes back into a company by selling its products.
When the revenue will equal the total costs. After this point, your revenue is more than your total costs and you start to make a profit.
An approach to manufacturing or production which uses less resources and causes less environmental damage by reducing the exploitation of natural resources, minimizing waste and preventing pollution.
This is how companies deal with the problem of reducing pollutants. As opposed to the 'cradle to grave' Green Design approach which takes into account the environmental impact of the product throughout its product life cycle.