- Brought about by _____ rulers within a polticial and social order centered on ______ at the top.
- Internal ______ between sultans, _____ corps, and ______.
- ______ _________ taken advantage of by land owning classes.
- Squabbles and a weaker ______ deprived of ____ could not match European rivals.
- Ottomans pushed out of ____, _____, __, ______.
squabbles, Janisarries, bureaucrats.
Russia seen as a major threat after westernization by __ _ ____.
- Lost _____ due to _____ revolt in 1830.
Peter the Great.
- Its survival depended on divisions between the ________ powers.
- ______ supported Ottomans to prevent _____ from taking over the empire and acquiring access to the ______.
British, Russia, Mediterranean.
- Sultan who aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy.
- (he was topple by __________ due to his desire to reform army)
Selim III, Janissaries.
- Sultan who built a private, professional army.
- Fomented revolution of _______ and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of them and their ______ allies.
- Initiated reform of _______ ___ on ___ precedents.
Mahmud II, Janissaries, religious.
Ottoman Empire, Western
- Changes in the Ottoman Empire that established Western-style university, state postal system railways, legal reforms, and a new constitiution.
- Reforms did not help ______.
Tanzimat Reforms, women.
Ottoman conflicts over reforms:
- new ______ elites clashed with ______ groups.
- Sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism from 1878 - 1908.
- Nullified ______ and resrricted ____ liberties; deposed in coup.
- Pushed for ________ in the military, brought in German ______ leaders, and increased western-style _______.
Abdul Hamid, constitution, civil. westernization, military, education.
- Organization of political agitators against Abdul Hamid' called "young Turks", Desired to restored 1876 constitution.
- Led _____ coup in 1908.
- ______ took over, restored constitution, and enacted reforms.
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress.
- Islamic thinkers debated the best way to reverse the decline and drive back the _______. Some argued for a returm to the _____ past; others favored a large-sclae adoption of _______ ways.
Europeans, Islamic, Western.
Crisis in Egypt:
- 1798 shockwave goes through Islamic world as _______ invaded Egypt as a prelude to destroying British power in ______.
- Egyptian leader of Mamulk gov who suffered a defeat at hads of French, destroying Mamluk power.
- France embarrassed Egyptain forces at the ______ of the _______ and revealed how far behind the ______ world was.
- Egypt spared following British defeat of France at ______ of _____.
Battle of the Pyramids, Islamic
battle of Aboukir
- Ruler of Egypt who brought up to date European sytle military reforms.
- Introduced western _____ among the Egyptian _____.
- Hired ___ officers to train troops with ______ tactics.
- Reformed _____ by increasing production of cottome, hemp, and indigo; increased ____ and ________, and reform _____.
harbors, irrigation, education
- Descendents of Muhammad ALi' formal rulers of Egupt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Egypt backrupty and resistance:
- Expansion of ____ production at expanse of food grains left Egypt dependent on ______ export.
- Connected Mediterranean Sea with Red sea; finnanced by European iverstors with increasing indebtedness of khedives, permitted intervention of _______ into Egyptian politics to protect investment.
- Britain protected _______.
Sudan vs Egyptian:
- river town that was administrative center of Egyptain authority in Sudan.
- by 1870s, Egyptian oppression and ______ intervention arounsed deep resentment and hostility.
- Sufi master who became better known as Mahdi.
- A promised deliverer; Sudan leader against Egyptains and British.
- Mahdi led believers in a ___ ________ on Egypt whom he beleibed was a corrput form of Islam.
- Led several vecitries before his dealth.
- he was finally put down by British general ______ at battle of ______.
-Leader who led the Manchu peoples into control of China.
0 Eight armies of the manch tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in 17th century; utilized to defeat ____ emperor and establish Qing dynasty.
- Manchu dyanasty that seized control of China in mid 17th centyry after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the ___ and compelled ___ form Bietnam and Burman to the south.
Qing, west, tribute.
Manchu preserved the Chinese ______ system and paralleled a _______ approach to Chinese society as a whole.
- Empahasized _____ and _______ _______.
- _______ were still subservient to males and a renewed neo________ attitude led to a rise in _____.
- Wealthy new group of merchants
education, imperial edicts.
weomen. confucianism, infanticide.
- _____ and labor demands were lowered to decrease _____.
- ___ -________ tenure was given to those who would resettle abandoned lands.
- _______, most of the ladn went to large ________.
- Gap between ____ and _______ grew.
rich and poor.
- Examination system rife with ________.
- Less concern was paid to ____ landowners and __________.
- Corruption filtered _______ out of public works projects and into hands of ______ families.
- Lack of funds left ____ in disrepair and cause ____ _______.
- COuld not pay for _____ and ______ technology upgrades.
dikes, flood damage.
military and training.
Condition of peasantry ______ due to food shortages, _____ by lg landowners, and ________.
- Led to mass ______, increase of ______, ______, and abandonment of ____.
- Renewed belief in __ cycle, that a new leader would soon overthrow the Qing and lead to a better life.
- China needed innovations in _______ and _________.
worsened, exploitation, floods.
- migrations, begging, banditry, lands.
dynastic, technology and organization.
Fought between the ______- and ____ CHina beginning in 1839, fought to protect _____ trade in opium; resulting in resounding ______ victory, opening of ____ _______ as British port of trade.
Opium War, British and Qing. British, British, Hong Kong.
- Chinese official who ordered the destruction and confiscation of opium throughout CHina in the late 1830's.
- Britian brought _______ intervention to force China to allow opium to be sold again.
- ________ vicotry allowed Eruo. powers to open up China for both ____ and diplomatic ______.
Bristich, trade, exchanges.
- Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s; led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi- Christianzed prophet who claimed to be the brother of Jesus; sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucain basis of scholar-gentry.
- called for _____ reform, ______ redistribution, the liberation of ___ and removal of _____ elite.
- attack on _______ _______ led to defeat of Tapings.
social, land, women, confucian.
- China lost control of Vietnam to France.
- Declared independence.
- jAPANESE VICTORY GAINED THEM TRADING RIGHTS AND tAIWAN.
- US announced equal trading rights for all imperial powers.
Open Door Policy
- Popular outburt in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from China' failed because of intervention of armies of Western powers in China; defeat of Chinese enhanced control by Europeans and the power of provincial officials.