Variables that affect rate
temperature, concentration of reactants, surface area, catalysts
The least amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place.
So to make a given reaction have more successful collisions we can...
decrease activation energy
When T increases, the # of high energy collisions
increase rate or reaction without themselves being consumed. They provided a different reaction pathway that has lower activation energy.
A reaction at equilibrium looks
like its stopped (constant color, volume, etc.).
Constant Macroscopic Properties
Must have a closed system, at equilibrium the reaction is still occurring, the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
Le Chatelier's Principle (When a system in equilibrium is subjected to stress, it moves in such a way to relive that stress." Stress is...
add a reactant (reaction moves to the right), increase Temperature then moves in endo direction, reduce volume (aka increase pressure) of container then moves to side with less gaseous moles, catalyst- no affect (just goes faster), adding inert gas to increase Pressure- no affect
What changes K (equilibrium constant)?
Equilibrium expression from this reaction Aa +Bb <=> Cc+ Dd
Kc= ( [C]^c [D]^d) / ([A]^a [B]^b)
Concentrations of solids and liquids