Praxis II: Music Content Knowledge 0113

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Music History and Literature Music Theory Performance Music Learning, K-12 Professional Practices

Absolute Music

Pure music, not linked to words or descriptive ideas. Opposite of program music.

Alberti Bass

Accompaniment style popular in the classical period. Instead of writing simple chords for the left hand, the composer arranges the same notes in a pattern of broken chords.

Alto Clef

C clef used by the viola. C is on the middle line.

Anacrusis

Pick up bar.

Antiphonal

Alternate singing or playing by different groups.

Arco

Instruction to use the bow after a plucked passage of music.

Arpeggio

Chord whose notes are played one after another. Sometimes it is written as a chord preceded by a wiggly line.

Articulation

Musical shaping and phrasing. Marks include staccato, legato, accent.

Atonal

Without key center

Augmentation

Increasing the note values of a musical theme, usually to twice their value.

Augmented

Made larger.

Bare chord

Chord without a third.

Binary form

Two part form - A B. The first section modulates (usually to the dominant). The second section is often longer than the first and uses similar material.

Blues

Based on a chord pattern using primary chords (I IV V).

C Clefs

Alto and tenor clefs

Cadence

Gives stopping place to breathe. Signals the end of both small and large musical sections.

Perfect Cadence

Cadence: V - I

Plagal Cadence

Cadence: IV -I

Interrupted Cadence

Cadence: V - vi

Imperfect Cadence

Cadence:
I - V
ii - V
IV - V

Canon

Type of counterpoint (polyphony) where one or more voices imitate a leading voice.

Chromatic

Notes that are not in the key of the composition. Romatic period is known as the period of chromaticism.

Coda

Ending section designed to round off a musical composition.

Consonance

Combination of aggreable tones.

Countermelody

Second melody above or below the main melody. Descant is a type of countermelody.

Cross Rhythm

Two conflicting rhythms used at the same time. Also known as polyrhythm.

Development

Modification of motif and themes. The main ways of developing a theme are by imitation, sequence, inversion, fragmentation, augmentation, and diminution.

Diminution

Repeating a theme or motif with notes of smaller value (usually half)

Diminished

Made smaller.

Dissonance

Effect of tension or disturbance made by using discords in music. Jazz uses many colorful dissonant chords.

Dominant

Fifth tone in a major or minor scale.

Extension

Developing a phrase or motif by making it longer.

Fanfare

Musical announcement played on brass instruments before the arrival of an important person. Usually played on trumpets and built from the notes of one major triad.

Figured Bass

Used by composers in the Baroque period. Numbers underneath the bass line told the performer which chords to play. The bass part was called the continuo. Each number represents an interval between the bass and the note to be supplied.

Fragmentation

Breaking of a theme into segments in order to develop it

Glissando

Gliding or sliding from one note to another. Can be shown by a line between notes or by writing the actual notes to be played.

Portamento

Glissando in vocal music

Smear

Glissando in jazz music

Hammer on

Articulation on guitar produced by sliding the finger from one fret to the next up and back.

Harmonic

High, clear, pure sound produced on a string instrument by lightly stopping the string at its halfway point.

Harmony

Sound that results when two or more notes are played at the same time.

Hocket

Breaking of a melody into single notes or very short phrases by using rests. The melody is then shared between different voices.

Homophonic

Music that moves in harmonic blocks (as opposed to the linear way polyphonic music moves)

Imitation

Repetition by one or more different voices of a phrase.

Rhythmic Imitation

Only the rhythm of a passage is imitated, not the melody.

Imitation by Inversion

Phrase is imitated by turning it upsidedown.

Introduction

Bars of music before the main tune begins.

Inversion

Turning upside down. Change of the relative position of an interval, chord, or melody.

Inversions of chords are used to...

Give a more melodic bass part and to give variety to the music.

A melody moves by inversion if...

It moves in contrary motion when repeated. Sometimes the intervals are not exact.

Irregular rhythm

Rhythms that constantly change or are grouped in a different way.

Leading Note

Seventh tone in a major or minor scale

Mediant

Third tone in a major or minor scale

Melody

Series of tones arranged in a rhythmic pattern, often built by repeating and varying a motif.

Passing Notes

Form of decoration; Unessential note that is not part of the harmony. Occurs off the beat.

Accented Passing Note

An unessential note that falls on the beat

Auxiliary Notes

Come between notes of the same pitch, either a note higher or note lower.

Bye-tones

Unessential note that forms part of the harmony

Notes of Anticipation

Come at the end of a passage and anticipate the final chord.

Appoggiaturas

Note that does not form part of the harmony and is approached by a leap and quitted by a step

Microtone

Interval of less than a semitone

Harmonic Minor Scale

Sharpened leading note ascending and descending

Melodic Minor Scale

Sharpened 6 and 7, but reverted to naturals when descending

Natural Minor Scale

Natural Pitch

Dorian Mode

Mode: D-D

Aeolian

Mode: A-A

Phrygian

Mode: E-E

Locrian

Mode: B-B

Lydian

Mode: F-F

Ionian

Mode: C-C

Mixolydian

Mode: G-G

Monophonic

Music with a single melody line and no harmony.

Motif

Smallest unit of musical form. Can be as short as two notes or as long as six. A motif has Clear rhythmic patterns as well as a clear melodic outline.

Ostinato

Short, constantly repeated motif. Usually, but not always in the bass.

Pedal Point

A long held note or series of repeated notes, usually in the bass, above which harmonies constantly change. Tonic and dominant pedals are the most common.

Inverted Pedal

If the pedal is in any part other than the bass.

Pentatonic Scale

Scale consisting of five notes. No semitones. One major third, two minor thirds. All fifths are perfect.

Phrase

Smallest complete unit of musical form containing about as much as can be held in a normal breath. Can be two to eight bars long.

Polyphonic

Music where two or more equally important melodic lines are combined and woven together with rhythmic contrast happening between the voices.

Polytonality

Simultaneous use of two or more keys.

Primary Triads

I, IV, V

Programme Music

Music that attemtps to paint a picture or mood, describe an action, or tell a story. Very popular in the Romantic period.

Pull off

Articulation for guitar produced by sliding the finger from one fret to the next down and back. Similar to a slur.

Pulse

Steady beat that is present in almost every musical composition.

Register

Part of the total pitch range of an instrument that has a distinctive quality.

Repetition

Occurs when a phrase is repeated immediately at exactly the same pitch.

Retrograde

A composition or part of a composition that can be performed backwards as well as forwards.

Rhythmic displacement

Repeating a rhythm in a different part of the bar.

Riff

Continuously repeated musical phrase in jazz music, played over changing harmonies.

Rondo Form

A B A C A. Usually sections B and C are in a different key.

Rubato

Way of playing or singing in which some of the notes are slightly hurried while others are slowed down. Free flowing expressiveness according to the performer.

Semitone

Smallest interval in common use in western music. The interval between one note on the piano and the next.

Major Scale Semitones

Between 3/4 and 7/8

Harmonic Minor Scale Semitones

Between 2/3, 5/6, 7/8

Sequence

Repetition of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch.

Real Sequence

Exact transposition of each note in a sequence.

Tonal Sequence

Intervals of the first phrase are NOT reproduced exactly.

Harmonic Sequences

Occur in all parts. Fundamental then up an octave then a fifth

Melodic Sequences

Only occur in the melody over an independent bass.

Stretto

Where a composer imitates a passage, but the second part enters before the first part has ended.

Subdominant

Fourth tone in a major/minor scale

Submediant

Sixth tone in a major or minor scale

Supertonic

Second tone in a major/minor scale

MM

Maelzel's Metronome

Tenor Clef

C clef sometimes used by the cello, bassoon, and trombone. C is on the second to top line

Ternary Form

Three part musical form created by repeating the first section without changing. A B A.

Texture

Thick or thin - How many instruments or voices are performing together.

Timbre

Tone color or quality of sound.

Tonality

Another word for key.

Tonic

Key note. Tonic of C major is C. The tonic triad is C E G.

Tonic Minor

Minor key with the same tonic as a major one. C major and C minor.

Unrelated Chord

Chord that is in a different key to the one before it with no notes in common.

Whole Tone Scale

Consists entirely of whole steps.

Instruction on string instruments begins no later than grade

5

General music is required until grade

8

(Elementary/Middle School) Every music course meets at least every other day in periods of at least ____ minutes.

45

JRME

Journal of Research for Music Education

The School Music Program: A New Vision

Provides music educators with a blueprint for music curricula based on the best practices of the past, modified to meet the needs of the future. In addition to K-12 National Standards, it contains prekindergarten standards developed by MENC: The National Association for Music Education, as well as an explanation of their impact on music educators.

National Standards for Music Education: Content 1

1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music

National Standards for Music Education: Content 2

2. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music

National Standards for Music Education: Content 3

3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments

National Standards for Music Education: Content 4

4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines

National Standards for Music Education: Content 5

5. Reading and notating music

National Standards for Music Education: Content 6

6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music

National Standards for Music Education: Content 7

7. Evaluating music and music performances

National Standards for Music Education: Content 8

8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts

National Standards for Music Education: Content 9

9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture

MENC

The National Association for Music. World's largest arts education organizations. 1907, MENC worked to ensure every student has access to a well-balanced. Developed National Standards for Arts Education.

ACDA

American Choral Directors Association

AOSA

American Orff-Schulwerk Association

OAKE

Organization of American Kodaly Educators

ASTA

American String Teachers Association

ASCAP

American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers

MPA

Music Publishers' Association

MTNA

Music Teachers National Association

NAMM

The International Music Products Association

NASM

National Association of Schools of Music

NSBA

National School Boards Association

National Standards for Arts Education

This volume contains content and achievement standards for music, dance, theatre, and visual arts for grades K-12. Developed by the Consortium of National Arts Education Associations (American Alliance for Theatre & Education, MENC, National Art Education Association, and National Dance Association) under the guidance of the National Committee for Standards in the Arts.

Extrensic Reward

Verbal praise, candy, treats, games, surprises

Intrensic Reward

Child figures out a concept, excels in a skill, feels pride in ability

School Music Program: A New Vision K-4

Sing on pitch and rhythm, steady tempo, ostinatos, rounds, partner songs, improvise simple ostinato accompaniments, improvise short songs, use body and nontraditional sounds to make music, create and arrange music to accompany readings, create short songs, read whole, half, dotted half, quarter, eighth notes, rests in 2/4, 3/2, 4/4 meter, Use system (syllables, numbers, letters) reading simple pitch notation, Navajo, Arabic, Latin American music, Evaluate music,

School Music Program: A New Vision 5-8

Sing with breath control, alone and in small and large ensembles, sing with expression vocal lit. on a difficulty level of 2 including songs from memory, two and three parts, improvise simple harmonic accompaniments, simple rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and major keys, read whole, hald, quarter, eighth, sixteenths, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/8 and alla breve. SR music with difficulty of 2, recognize jazz, mariachi, gamelan

School Music Program: A New Vision 9-12

Sing with expression and technical accuracy, large and varied repertoire of vocal literature difficulty of 4 on scale of 6, sing 4 parts with and without accompaniment, improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts, improvise in pentatonic, major and minor keys, compose in several distinct styles, evolve criteria for making informed critical evaluations of the quality, compose, arrange, improvise, Baroque, Sub-Saharan, African, Korean, sing, broadway musicals, blues.

Opportunity-To-Learn Standards for Music Instruction: Grades PreK-12

Facilities, Course Offerings, Scheduling, Staffing, Materials, Equipment

Psychomotor Skills

Manual or physical skills (body)

Cognitive Skills

Mental skills (knowledge)

Affective Behaviors

Growth in physical or emotional areas (attitude)

90 Minutes

(Elementary) Student recieves general music instruction each week for at least _____. Excluding time devoted to elective instrumental or choral instruction. Music is woven into the curriculum throughout the school day.

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